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Blount Report: Affairs in Hawaii

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HAWAIIAN   ISLANDS.	377 
Mr. Stevens to Mr. Foster.
[Confidential.]
No. 74]	UNITED STATES LEGATION,
Honolulu, November 20, 1892.
SIR: Fidelity to the trust imposed on me by the President, the De- 
partment of State, and the Senate, requires that I should make a care- 
ful and full statement of the financial, agricultural, social, and political 
condition of these islands. An intelligent and impartial examination 
of the facts can hardly fail to lead to the conclusion that the relations 
and policy of the United States toward Hawaii will soon demand 
some change, if not the adoption of decisive measures, with the aim 
to secure American interests and future supremacy by encouraging 
Hawaiian development and aiding to promote responsible government 
in these islands. It is unnecessary for me to allude to the deep in- 
terest and the settled policy of the United States Government in re- 
spect of these islands, from the official days of John Quincy Adams 
and of Daniel Webster to the present time. In all that period, we 
have avowed the superiority of our interests to those of all other 
nations, and have always refused to embarrass our freedom of action 
by any alliance or arrangement with other powers as to the ultimate 
possession and government of the islands. Before stating the present 
political condition of the little kingdom, it is well to review the sub- 
stantial data as to its area, its resources, its financial and business 
condition, its capabilities of material development, its population, the 
status of its landed property, its government, revenues, and expendi- 
tures, etc.
PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS.
The total area of the kingdom is about 6,000 square miles. Not in- 
cluding several small islands of little importance, the chief value of the 
land area is in the six islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, 
and Hawaii, the last named being nearly the size of all the rest of the 
group. The plains, valleys, and lowlands are fertile, while the high- 
lands are adapted to the raising of extensive herds of cattle, horses, 
and sheep. The arable lands are adapted to the production of sugar, 
coffee, rice, bananas, oranges, lemons, pineapples, grapes and maize. 
Of the arable lands only such as are fitted for the production of sugar 
and rice have been much brought into use. The coffee raised is of 
superior quality, and finds ready market for home consumption and in 
San Francisco. There is no doubt that this product can be greatly 
extended. This opinion is sustained by the examination of experts 
and has been verified by successful results in coffee-raising, to which 
there is now being given special attention.
The banana culture can be greatly extended, and the opportunities 
for the production of oranges are large and promising. Ripening at a 
time in the year different from those of southern California, the 
Hawaiian oranges can find a ready market in San Francisco, and es- 
pecially in the cities of Oregon and Washington, where these islands 
procure most of their lumber for buildings and fences, and from which 
they procure coal, the consumption of which will necessarily increase 
for use in the sugar mills and the supply of steamers. For a quarter 
of a century the profits of sugar-raising have tended to divert capital 
and enterprise almost exclusively to the cane culture, to the neglect of 
the other industries and interests of the islands. Good government

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