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Blount Report: Affairs in Hawaii

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                             610	HAWAIIAN   ISLANDS.
The heir apparent, Prince Alexander Liholiho, however, was at heart opposed to the treaty, and 
interposed every possible delay to its completion. It is said that he and his brother, Lot Kamehameha, never 
forgave some incivility which they had experienced on account of their color when traveling in America. 
He was also moved by a laudable pride of country, a natural desire to reign, and a partiality to England 
and. her institutions.
The mass of the native population was never consulted, and was indifferent on the subject. Race 
antagonism had not yet been developed to any extent. A newspaper in the Hawaiian language, called the 
Nuhou, edited by a Mr. Marsh, was started in February, 1854, to prepare the native mind for annexation, 
and was continued for six months. Another memorial on the subject, numerously signed, was presented to 
the King in January, 1854. It is singular that hardly an allusion to the subject can be found in the Honolulu 
papers of the time, and none in any of the official reports of the minister of foreign affairs.
NEGOTIATION  OF  THE  TREATY.
In February, 1854, the matter took "a more definite shape. On the 6th of that month, in view of danger 
from filibusters and conspirators, the King commanded Mr. Wyllie to ascertain on what terms a treaty of 
annexation could be negotiated to be used as a safeguard to meet any sudden danger that might arise. Every 
proposition was to he considered by the cabinet and Prince Liholiho, and the treaty as a whole was to he 
submitted to His Majesty for his approval, modification, or rejection.
The negotiations were carried on between Mr. Wyllie and Mr. Gregg with the utmost secrecy. At the 
second meeting, February 11, Mr. Gregg agreed to proceed with a negotiation ad referendum, and wrote to 
the United States Secretary of State for instructions.
A basis for negotiations, framed by Judge Lee and approved by the King and his ministers, was 
afterwards presented to Mr. Gregg, guarantying to Hawaiian subjects all the rights of American citizens, 
providing for the admission of the Hawaiian Islands as a State into the Union, for a due compensation to the 
King and chiefs, and a liberal sum for the support of schools. The amount of compensation to be asked for 
had been referred to a committee, who recommended that a lump sum, viz, $300,000, he distributed in the 
form of annuities by the King and his council. At their sixth meeting, June 1, Mr. Gregg stated that he had 
received full powers and instructions from his own Government. At Mr. Wyllie's request he then proceeded 
to draft an outline of the treaty. He was furnished with detailed statements of the property owned by the 
Hawaiian Government and of the salaries paid by it. An interval of two months followed, during which the 
treaty made very little progress.
In a private letter from Mr. Wyllie to Judge Lee, dated June 23, he says: "The treaty is now before Prince 
Liholiho, with all the amendments suggested by you. To be able to save the King and chiefs and people at 
a moment's warning it is desirable that the treaty should be concluded diplomatically - I mean signed by 
the plenipotentiaries, but subject to future ratification." Again, July 11, Mr. Wyllie writes to Judge Lee as 
follows: "Liholiho keeps out of the way, and he has not returned the treaties, though I have often asked 
him for them. Of my draft I have no copy."
The Fourth of July was celebrated at Honolulu this year with unusual enthusiasm, and in Mr. Gregg's 
oration allusion was made to the prospect that a new star would soon be added to the constellation of 
States.
On the 17th of July a combined British and French fleet of eight vessels arrived from Callao, on their 
way to attack the Russian fortress of Petropaulovski. The two admirals and their officers had a reception at 
the palace, at which the French admiral said, at M. Perrin's suggestion, that he hoped there was no thought 
of alienating the sovereignty of the Kingdom, as that would lead to difficulties with France and England, 
which it would be wise to avoid. The King made no reply.
In a letter from Mr. Gregg to the United States Secretary of State, dated July 26, he states that " a meeting 
was held on the 17th, at which Prince Alexander was present, when it was agreed that the minister of foreign 
affairs should immediately proceed, if possible, to arrange and sign a treaty to be submitted to the King for 
ratification. Mr. Wyllie called on me the next day and we had several conferences, hut without as yet 
arriving at any definite result. Prince Alexander is responsible for all past delay and he will not hesitate to 
incur the responsibility of still more, unless his mind is brought to the conviction that it is impossible for 
him ever to wear a crown. * * * If a treaty is once signed he will not oppose its ratification directly and 
openly, but strive to postpone it to the last moment compatible with safety."
The two principal difficulties were, first, the objection of the Hawaiian authorities to a territorial form of 
government, and, secondly, the question as to the amount of the annuities to be paid, the Hawaiian 
Government insisting on $300,000 as a sine

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