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Mr. HALE. As a Senator suggests to me, it would apply not simply to a contract 
of a day laborer to perform work upon any building or any farm or any estate, but a 
contract for larger services, for the snperintendency of an estate, of a plantation, 
of a mill.
Mr. SPOONER.   Will the Senator from Maine allow me?
Mr. HALE.   Certainly.
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Does the Senator from Maine yield to the Senator 
from Minnesota?
Mr. HALE.   Certainly.
Mr. NELSON.   Will the Senator allow me one word here?
Mr. SPOONER. I thought the Senator from Maine yielded to me.
Mr. HALE.   I yield to all.
Mr. NELSON. I think the Senator from Maine misapprehends the effect of the 
amendment. The effect of the amendment of the Senator from Massachusetts is simply 
to prevent the enforcement of certain contracts by specific performance and to prevent 
criminal prosecution. That is exactly the law all over the country, in every State in 
this Union. It has always been so. Yon can never enforce by specific performance a 
contract for personal labor in any case, from the President of the United States 
down to the commonest laborer. Neither can you prosecute it criminally. This 
leaves the law, I want to say to the Senator from Maine, just as it is in respect to 
remedies for breach of civil contracts. That is all.
Mr. HALE. I understand. I do not know so well as the Senator from Minnesota that 
there are not anywhere in any State pro-visions or laws or decisions which authorize 
the enforcement of a specific contract for labor of any kind. Certainly this strikes all 
that out, and I think Senators should understand that it is a very wide-reaching, far-
stretching provision. It may be right. It may be that other States have such laws. I 
do not think we have in Maine. But it ought to be understood how far this 
provision does go.
There are plenty of things in this bill I can see as plain as day that will come up 
to perplex us hereafter. The relations are new. It is bringing into our system 
something about which none of us have any knowledge or experience-the 
application of laws to these people, the sustaining and upholding of certain other 
laws of theirs in part and making them remain in the future. All the complications 
in this bill, as I look at it and as I hear discussion upon it, grow in my mind, and I 
am afraid we will find, with all the care the committee has bestowed upon it and 
the scrutiny which Senators have given it, that when we get through in operation we 
will find a bill that will come back to trouble us in a great many ways, and that we 
are going very far in certain directions and not far enough in certain other 
directions. Therefore I call attention to this provision, which may be all right. It 
may be all right that every kind of contract involving personal labor shall only be 
enforced by a suit for damages; but everybody knows that a suit of that kind in most 
cases is of no avail and has nothing on which it can base a judgment. But it may 
be better to apply it here. We ought to understand it, of course, and I think we do 
understand the extent of the amendment of the Senator from Massachusetts.
Mr. HOAR. Mr. President, as is very well known, I have not been in favor of 
undertaking the government of subject populations, and all the reflection I have 
given to the matter increases my opinion that it is not desirable, either for such 
populations or for us, that we should do it. But I am in favor of giving a code of 
laws to a people whom I hope and expect some time may become, a prosperous and 
strong American State; and it seems to me that when we are legislating for Hawaii, 
in regard to which I have such a hope and expectation, we ought, when we deal 
with any, subject, to make our legislation perfect as far as possible in that 
Now, if it be sound public policy, in the judgment of the Senate, to prohibit a court 
from ordering anybody, humble or not humble, to be taken by the power of a sheriff 
or a marshal and led out to his work in the morning and sent back, not exactly like 
a galley slave scourged to his dungeon, but sent back, confined and bound and held in 
duress, I can not for the life of me see why that doc-trine ought not to be applied 
now to the island of Hawaii by proper enactment while we are dealing with the 
specific subject. They are not going to make a law on the subject this year or next 
year. We are making a code which involves other large relations, and we are going to 
say something in that code about the legal remedy on contracts to labor. We 
have the subject up. The question is, having the subject up, whether we shall do 
the work or only half do the work. I am in favor of doing the work and not 
stopping when we have half done it. As the Senator from Minnesota has so well 
said, we are only enacting in this code what other States, Home of which have codes 
and some have not, have for their law now.
Mr. CULLOM.   Question.
The PRESIDING OFFICER.   The question is on agreeing to

the amendment proposed by the Senator from Illinois as modified by the Senator from 
Mr. RAWLINS.   I ask that the amendment may be stated.
The SECRETARY. It is proposed at the end of section 10 to insert the following:
provided, That no proceeding shall be maintained for the specific performance of 
any contract for personal labor or service, and there shall be no criminal proceeding (or the 
breach thereof.
Mr. HALE. Would that description, no " contract for personal labor," cover the contracts 
that the committee originally intended to provide for-foreign labor? I do not know enough 
about it to know whether they are made with the persons who labor or whether they are 
made with parties who agree to furnish con-tract labor. In providing on the general 
ground that the Senator stated so strongly, I should not want to have this enacted and find 
that there slipped out the very provision that we started to put in affecting contracts for 
imported foreign labor. I do not Know whether the contracts are made with those persons 
or with agents.
Mr. CULLOM. If the Senator will allow me, I have before me a document containing a 
Mr. HALE.   The Senator from Illinois knows about that.
Mr. CULLOM.   I will read a contract.
Mr. HALE.   Read a portion of it.
Mr. CULLOM.   Very well.
This agreement made and entered into this 16th day of February, A. D. 1898, by and 
between Jacob Coerper, party of the first part, of Kahului, North Kona, Hawaii, and 
Koroyama (k), Yakoyarna (k), Iwata (k),and Takista (k), of the second part, of Kahului 2, 
North Kona aforesaid, witnesseth:
That the said parties have agreed and do agree by these presents as follows: The said 
parties of the second part will plant and properly cultivate under and by the advice of 
said party of the first part, commencing within ten days from date, all that portion of land 
situate in Kahului 2, aforesaid--
Mr. HALE. The Senator need not go on. It appears that it is a contract made with each 
of the persons who are to perform the labor.
Mr. CULLOM.   Who are to perform the labor.
Mr. HALE.   And is signed by each of them personally?
Mr. CULLOM.   It does not say how it is signed.
Mr. HALE.   I suppose it must be.
Mr. CULLOM.   I suppose it is.
Mr. HALE. In some of the California contracts the persons who performed the labor 
never signed any contract.
Mr. CULLOM. The Senator will see that this contract is not only to labor, but it 
involves a sort of partnership by which these men are to raise sugar at certain figures, and 
so on. You can scarcely say, in fact, that it is a personal labor contract, because it is an 
agreement between these parties to raise sugar on certain terms.
Mr. HALE. The last observation of the Senator from Illinois, that this does not come up 
to the legal description of a personal contract, raises a doubt. Has the Senator any doubt 
that the amendment which he has accepted does entirely cover the system of foreign-labor 
Mr. CULLOM. I have no doubt it will destroy the business, and my own judgment is 
that without this amendment, the Constitution and the laws of the United States being 
extended over those islands, it will break up the whole thing, and there will be no more 
of it than there is in the United States.
Mr. PERKINS. I should like to ask the Senator from Illinois if, in his opinion, the 
amendment will cover a contract made by a certain Japanese company represented by its 
officers for a certain number of Japanese. As a matter of fact, thousands and thousands 
of Japanese workmen have been imported into the Hawaiian Islands. They come there 
under contract made with the managers of those companies. As evidence of that fact, per-
mit me to read an extract from the report of Commissioner Powderly, made one year ago to 
our committee:
Detailed information of a confidential nature has been received, showing that 
since the passage of the joint resolution annexing the said islands immigration 
thereto has been greatly stimulated; as many as 7,000 Japanese have been 
contracted for by residents and 250 Italians engaged to work on sugar plantations. 
These figures, by a comparison with arrivals prior to the passage of the said act, 
indicate that interested parties are exerting them-selves to laud in said islands as 
many immigrants as possible of such classes as would be excluded if the operation of 
our immigration laws were extended so as to embrace arrivals in Hawaii.
It is a notorious fact that since this, one year ago--
Mr. JONES of Arkansas. I wish to ask the Senator what is the date of that report? I 
believe he said it was a year ago.
Mr. PERKINS.   February, 1899.
Mr. JONES of Arkansas. How many of these Japanese laborers have been imported into 
Hawaii since that time?
Mr. PERKINS. The report is dated February 13, one year ago. I was about to say-I 
have it unofficially-that there have been fully 15,000 immigrants into the island since that 
Mr. CULLOM.   Will the Senator allow me to interrupt him?
Mr. PERKINS.   Certainly.
Mr. CULLOM.   I stated yesterday what seemed to be as far as

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