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for the Californians, as well as education for their children, when 
the gold diggers went out to California.
When you get still above that you have got a grazing country. 
When you get still above that you have got a country that abounds in 
berries and ground fruits, such as raspberries, strawberries, and 
huckleberries, and the like of that, and a number of konahberries 
and various kinds of very delicious fruits that grow spontaneously 
on the earth. So, as you ascend to a height of 15,000 feet, in some 
places, you have several latitudes in the different altitudes 
producing different kinds of crops.
Well, I can say that it would take an expert agriculturist to ex-
amine into this subject and present to the people the facts that 
would induce them to go there and raise sugar, bananas, rice, 
wheat, corn, melons. Fruits, of course, of various kinds grow all the 
year through. The ohia apple is wild there and grows on a tree as 
large as an ordinary oak. It bears a delicious apple and is in great 
abundance all through the country. There are many other fruits 
that grow spontaneously in the country, such as oranges, 
lemons, and limes. It is a country which abounds in fruits.
I think our people would like to know exactly the situation there, 
and I think Congress would like to know it, because when propo-
sitions are brought in here for the disposal of the public lands, 
when we have to enact laws to dispose of those public lands, we 
want to know what is the best system on which to proceed; whether 
the gridiron system of rectangular surveys which obtains here or 
surveys that accommodate themselves to the particular business in 
hand. An area of land that is sufficient for a coffee plantation 
would not be enough, for instance, for a wheat farmer or a corn 
farmer. But all of these particulars are of such a peculiar char-
acter that it occurred to the committee that it was better to have 
the Agricultural Department take charge of it than the Interior 
Department, which would deal with nothing, as has been observed 
here, but the land and perhaps something about its quality and 
the method of survey and disposal. That is the whole matter.
Mr. TELLER. Mr. President, it seems to me that all this matter 
touching the land laws ought to be left to the Interior Department. 
We can not afford to begin to divide up these questions in 
different Departments. Unless we are disposed to turn over the 
lands to the Agricultural Department all these things ought to be 
left to the Secretary of the Interior.
Then, I suggest, if I may be allowed, to the Senator who has 
just taken his seat, who knows all about this subject, if he will 
draft a provision that will cover his suggestion, I shall be very 
glad to vote for it, and let that go to the Secretary of Agriculture 
and let him do those things which he can do. Let us confine the 
question of the laws to the proper Department, and it certainly 
will be proper then to turn over those questions of the character of 
the lands and the products that the country will raise and all that 
to the Secretary of Agriculture.
I believe if the Senator will draft by to-morrow morning a pro-
vision of that kind, there will be no trouble about adopting it. 
There is money enough here, because, as the Senator from South 
Carolina says, the work of the Secretary of the Interior can be 
practically done here so far as the law is concerned, and then the 
Secretary of Agriculture can carry out the other idea on the 

   Mr. CULLOM. I merely want to say in connection with the 
Senator's remark that it is very important that the Secretary of 
Agriculture should report on the condition of those islands, the 
possibilities of the land.
Mr. TELLER. That is exactly what I want him to do; but I do 
not want him to invade the province of the Secretary of the 
Mr. CULLOM. The Secretary of the Interior ought to look 
into the question of how the best interests of agriculture can be 
served by dividing those lauds, parceling them out so as to suit 
the conditions of agriculture. If a man wants to raise coffee or if 
he wants to raise taro he has got to have an opportunity of 
selecting coffee or taro land, if you please. I think it would be 
proper and right for the Secretary of Agriculture to look into the 
condition of the surveys over there and determine whether they 
ire made in harmony with the necessities of agriculture.
Mr. TELLER. That is exactly what I think the Secretary of 
Agriculture may properly do. But I think whenever this land is to 
be surveyed, if we are to survey it, it will have to be surveyed 
under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior.
Mr. CULLOM.   I myself think so.
Mr. TELLER. And the Interior Department will avail itself of 
the information. Now, we shall have to survey that country on 
the rectangular system unless we should find, when the report 
comes in, that the character of the country is such that we must 
introduce a different system and cut up the country into smaller 
lots, 40 acres being the smallest subdivision of the Government 
surveys. I learn that 20 acres there is a very respectable farm, in 
some places. In some places you might need a hundred.
Mr. CULLOM. And 2 acres make a respectable patch or farm for 
a native, for instance, who is raising taro. That would be all he 
would want and no more.
Mr. TELLER. I am sure if we confine the legal question and 
those things to the Interior Department and turn the other things 
over to the other Department we shall get at it in better shape 
than if we were to have either Department do it alone.
Mr. CULLOM. After this discussion with the Senator from 
Colorado, it is left to the Senator from Alabama to prepare an 
Mr. PLATT of Connecticut. Some Senators desire an execu- 
tive session and there are some amendments to be proposed to the 
bill which will take some time in discussion. The Senator from 
Alabama is to prepare an amendment on the subject which he has 
just been discussing. I therefore move that the Senate proceed to 
the consideration of executive business.	
The motion was agreed to; and the Senate proceeded to the con-
sideration of executive business. After 8 minutes spent in executive 
session the doors were reopened, and (at 5 o'clock and 10 
minutes p. m.) the Senate adjourned until to-morrow, Wednesday, 
February 21,1900, at 12 o'clock m.

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