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Mr. President, we had landed 180 armed men with Gatling guns. Our 
minister had said that he would sustain this provisional government 
of thirteen men backed by no force at all; and the Queen, the Senator 
from Illinois says, surrendered her government. Mr. LINDSAY.   He 
says "voluntarily." Mr. PETTIGREW.   She says she surrendered it 
to the superior force of the United States until the United States 
could pass upon the question and settle the contention upon the 
basis of justice. Now what induced her to do this?   These men, 
shrewd and capable men, who owned the sugar plantations, had gone 
and persuaded her that the United States would do what was right; 
that the United States would, when they understood the facts, 
restore her government, inasmuch as we had overthrown it by 
force of superior numbers, and persuaded the Queen not to fight the 
United States and thus save bloodshed.   Years before this an 
English admiral had sailed into the bay of Honolulu and with his 
armed forces had overturned the king and dethroned him and 
taken charge of the government.    The then king surrendered 
under a protest similar to this one formulated by Queen Liliuokalani 
and submitted the question to the English Government; and to 
the honor and credit of the English Government, they restored the 
king and repudiated the acts of their admiral. No wonder the 
Queen then believed that this great Republic, that had been in the 
habit of doing right, would be more certain to do what was right 
than the Kingdom of Great Britain.   Therefore she submitted under 
this protest this question to us.   These thirteen men, or a part of 
them, signed a statement declaring that Stevens did not recognize 
this provisional government until after the Queen had surrendered 
and turned over to them the arsenal, the government buildings, the 
guns, and arms.   It turns out that their statement was absolutely 
false; that Mr. Stevens recognized this provisional government, 
although the Queen had at the time 275 armed men under her 
command; that she also had two or three Maxim or Gatling guns; but 
that she simply surrendered provisionally until the question could be 
submitted to us. What did we do?   We put up our flag over the 
buildings, and for sixty days the Stars and Stripes floated over the 
government headquarters of Hawaii.   During that time these 13 
men armed their followers, gathered together a considerable force, 
hired able-bodied men, no matter of what nationality, passing 
through that port on their way to Australia or elsewhere, and 
gathered together a force of 400 armed men.   In the meantime, with 
our flag floating over the transaction, they searched every house in 
the islands, confiscated every gun that they could find, disarmed 
everybody, passed a law by which they made it a criminal offense 
to import a gun of any sort, and through these proceedings thoroughly 
consolidated their power.   With 400 armed men, when our flag 
was taken down, they were able to maintain themselves against the 
inhabitants of that country. They ran along for a year, or two or three 
years, and finally these usurpers declared that they would adopt a 
constitution.   They never had adopted any.   There never had been 
any government except the self-constituted government of these 
13 men.   By the way, they had added to their number until there 
were 19 of them.   There were those, however, who had agreed to 
meet in the first instance, as the lurid Thurston, for example, the 
most eloquent fellow among them all, the man who wanted to aid 
other people to overturn the monarchy.    He was not seen whenever 
there was any meeting through which he might be classed as a 
traitor. So they increased their number by voluntary acquisition until 
they had 19.   The 19 men constituted the government, and they ran 
it along for over a year, for a year and a half, and then concluded 
they would adopt a constitution, and thus they organized the re-
public of Hawaii.   This is the way they adopted the constitution. 
They said that the people of Hawaii might elect eighteen delegates to 
a constitutional convention to sit with the 19 self-constituted and 
self-elected and self-appointed men who had been running the 
government. So the people, those whom they would allow to vote, 
elected 18 delegates, and the 18 delegates sat with the 19 men 
who had made themselves the government, and were not elected 
by anybody, being merely conspirators, and they formed a 
constitution; but after they had formed it they gave the 
aggregation a high-sounding title, the Republic of Hawaii, and 
declared for religious liberty and against slavery, and then 
proceeded to import slaves from Asia and Europe for their sugar 
plantations.   This constitution was never submitted to a vote of 
the people and was not voted upon by the people of Hawaii; it was 
never voted upon by anybody, only the 19 men who constituted it 
and the 18 men who were allowed to be elected by some sort of 
popular suffrage, but it was simply promulgated, and that is the 
government which existed in those islands up to the time we took 
possession. We refused to take possession for several years, and so 
matters ran on until the Spanish war broke out.   Then we passed a 
joint resolution by which we annexed the Hawaiian Islands to the 
United States.   We made a treaty, however, previous to that time 
with aforesaid 19 men, and that treaty provided that the islands 

be annexed to the United States.   We could not ratify the treaty be-
cause a two-thirds vote could not be obtained in this body to ratify it.   
After trying for weeks they finally succeeded in passing through 
both Houses a joint resolution of annexation.   I do not know 
whether that was ever agreed to by the people of the islands or not.   It 
makes no difference.   It may have been agreed to by those 19 men; it 
never was agreed to by the people of Hawaii; and if a vote had 
ever been taken of the legal and lawful voters of that country any 
resolution to annex the islands to the United States would have been 
defeated 5 to 1. Now, what was the purpose of all this?   Not to 
advance the interests of the people of the United States.   We had 
made a treaty in 1875 by which we agreed to admit sugar from 
those islands free of duty.   We were charging 2 cents a pound 
upon all the sugar that came from every other country in the world, 
and 2 cents a pound was equivalent to $40 a ton bounty on sugar.   
It came in free from Hawaii and they could raise it with slave labor 
at $6 or $7 a month and board themselves, and it paid an enormous 
profit.   So they came here and railroaded through this reciprocity 
treaty, as they called it, in 1875.   The sugar interests flourished. 
New plantations were opened up.   The remitted duties amounted to 
millions of dollars. In 1890 we passed a law admitting sugar into the 
United States free of duty from everywhere, and, therefore, they had 
to sell their sugar in this country or wherever they could in the 
markets of the world without the advantage of the duty which we 
had theretofore imposed on sugar from every other country but their 
own. Their bonus was gone.   But we had enacted a law by which 
we paid 2 cents a pound bounty on sugar, maple sugar, beet sugar, 
and sugar from Louisiana, and therefore the sugar planters, who 
found their industry waning and their profits slipping away, con-
cluded that they wanted to be annexed to the United States so as to 
get the bounty.   If they were a part of the United States they 
would be entitled to the 2 cents a pound bounty; and this is the 
reason why the movement was set on foot to annex those islands to 
this country.   This is the reason why those 13 men interested in 
the sugar industry, a part of them citizens of Hawaii, a part of 
them citizens of England and Germany, and one or two of them 
citizens of the United States, entered into the enterprise to overturn 
a friendly government and annex the islands to this country. Shortly 
following the effort at annexation we reenacted a duty upon sugar, 
so that the advantage returned to them.    We have remitted in duties to 
those people already the sum of over $80,000,000. Each year we remit 
in duties now more than $10,000,000, and that money comes out of 
the pockets of the people of the United States. Ten million dollars a 
year for the privilege of having the name of governing this rotten 
borough in the Pacific!   It comes out of the people of the United 
States, because, although they raise 300,000 tons of sugar, the 
amount which they raise is not sufficient to lower the price one 
particle in the United States, and therefore the duty which we 
remit, for we charge no duty upon their sugar, is added to the 
price of the sugar to the Hawaiian planter and comes out of the 
pockets of our people.   In other words, if those islands were not a 
part of the United States, and if we collected duty upon the sugar 
which they ship to us, we would collect a duty of over $10,000,000 a 
year. Mr. CULLOM.   I inquire of my friend if he is in favor of put-
ting a duty on sugar now that they are a part of the United States.   
Also, while I am on my feet, if the Senator will allow me; I will 
ask him whether he does not know that under the reciprocity treaty 
sugar was coming in free a very long while before we got the 
islands? Mr. PETTIGREW.   I stated that we made an agreement 
in 1875 by which sugar came in free from those islands, and that 
when in 1890 we made sugar free from everywhere they ceased to 
have an advantage and therefore they wanted annexation in order 
to get the bounty of 2 cents a pound which we were paying upon 
the domestic sugar produced. I will briefly answer the Senator's 
question before I finish.   Now, with regard to these islands, what 
have we acquired?   Mr. President, there are 3,085 people of 
American blood in the Hawaiian Islands.   There are about 1,100 
men who can vote.    Of those 3,085 people, 1,900 are males and 
1,100 are females, showing almost 2 to 1 of males over females 
among the population of American blood, showing the same thing 
that exists in every tropical country in the world where the 
European has gone.   In other words, the European, the American, 
does not go to the Tropics to raise children, to have a family, and 
therefore the disproportion between the males and the females for 
every Anglo-Saxon settlement in the Tropics throughout the world 
is from 2 to 5 to 1.    In Singapore there are probably 6,000 
Europeans, English and Americans, and less than 1,000 of them are 
females.   So it is in Hongkong; so it is in every tropical country 
throughout the world; so it is in Hawaii, and so it will always be in 
Hawaii. What were we told?   Why, that this was the paradise of 
the Pacific, that Americans would go there and raise families, and 
that we would soon build up an American State.   Mr. President,

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