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unanimous consent.   This bill, however, before the final vote, 
should be read entirely through under the five-minute rule, in 
order that each section may be open to debate and amendment. It 
occurs to me that it would be better now to modify the order, 
appropriating one day for general debate and the two remaining 
days for amendment and debate under the five-minute rule.   It 
seems to me desirable that we should reach some agreement by 
which we may be relieved from so much of the order as brings us to a 
vote at 4 o'clock on Thursday.   In other words, the bill should be read 
through.   I regret that the order as read has been made. I was going 
to suggest that if it can be done we modify the order so that the general 
debate may be concluded in one day; or if that can not be done, that 
we rescind the order for a vote at 4 o'clock on Thursday and let the bill 
be read through for debate and amendment.   If that can be concluded 
by 4 o'clock on Thursday, all right; if not, then let us devote another 
day to this business.   We have plenty of time, and it seems to me 
we ought not to bring ourselves to a vote on this bill without 
reading each section for amendment. Mr. KNOX.   Mr. Speaker, I 
suggest to the distinguished gentleman from Tennessee [Mr. 
RICHARDSON] whether it would not be well to go on for at least one 
day of general discussion under the rule as adopted.   Perhaps at the 
expiration of that time the desire for general debate may not be so 
pressing as it has been. There has been a very great demand on both 
sides of the House for time to speak generally on this bill - a 
demand so Pressing that it could not be fully yielded to. Another 
answer to the gentleman's objection is this: This bill is for the 
establishment of a Territorial government; it contains 103 sections.   
A very large, part of the bill comprises, of course, provisions for the 
governor, the legislature, etc., such provisions as we are all familiar 
with.   I think the amendments will be confined probably to a very 
few sections, involving differences of view among members as to 
what the government ought to be.   I am not myself apprehensive (I 
may be mistaken) of a back of time to give the bill due consideration. 
Mr. RICHARDSON.   There are over 100 sections in this bill; and if 
the reading under the five-minute rule should commence at half past 
12 o'clock on Thursday, it would take two hours - possibly it would 
take till 4 o'clock - without allowing any time for offering and 
discussing amendments.   For that reason it would be better if we 
could get rid of the part of the order to which I have referred.   If 
the offering of amendments and the discussion thereon can be 
conluded by 4 o'clock Thursday, all right; but I insist, if we do not 
get through that stage of the bill by 4 o'clock on Thursday, we 
ought not to bind ourselves to take a vote at that time. ' The 
SPEAKER.   Is there objection to the request which has been made 
by the gentleman from Massachusetts [Mr. KNOX]? Mr. BELL.   I 
object. Mr. WILLIAMS of Mississippi.   Pending that, and before 
1 object -- The SPEAKER.   Objection has been made. -- Mr. 
WILLIAMS of Mississippi.   I have made no objection. The 
SPEAKER.   The gentleman from Colorado [Mr. BELL] objected. 
The question is now on the motion that the House resolve itself into 
Committee of the Whole on the state of the Union for the 
consideration of Senate bill No. 222, to provide a government for the 
Territory of Hawaii. The motion was agreed to. . The House 
accordingly resolved itself into Committee of the Whole on the state 
of the Union (Mr. MOODY in the chair) , and proceeded to the 
consideration of Senate bill No. 222. Mr. KNOX.   I ask unanimous 
consent that the first reading of the bill be dispensed with. There was 
no objection, and it was ordered accordingly. Mr. KNOX.   Mr. 
Chairman, in presenting to the House this bill creating a government 
for the Territory of Hawaii, I do not think it would be profitable or 
pertinent to discuss the general question of the desirability and 
wisdom of the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands.   No subject of 
public policy has received the consideration of the American people 
more extensively than this.   It has been debated for the larger part 
of the century now closing, both in Congress and the popular 
forum.   It has been the subject of numerous Executive messages, and 
two treaties of annexation have failed.   But however great has been 
the difference of opinion in the United States upon the annexation 
of the Hawaiian Islands, there has been, and is to-day, no difference 
of opinion as to the danger and menace should they fall into the 
possession of any foreign nation. And it has been the uniform 
position of the Government that acquisition of these islands by a 
foreign nation would be regarded by the United States as an 
unfriendly act.   The discussion which had been continuous for so great 
a part of our national existence came to a sudden and unexpected 

tion.   Its end was in the events of the Spanish war, events which form 
an epoch in the history of this country and of the world. That war 
made generally apparent to the people of the United States the 
strategic necessity of those islands, in view of war and a hostile fleet 
in the Pacific Ocean.   They furnish the only base of naval operations 
in the Northern Pacific.   In all that vast expanse of water, as is said in 
the report of the distinguished gentleman from Illinois [Mr. HITT] , 
from the Equator to Alaska, from the shores of Asia to the shores of 
the United States, there is but one spot where a ton of coal, or a 
pound of bread, or a gallon of water can be obtained, and that place 
is in Hawaii. Hawaii also contains Pearl Harbor, one of the best and 
easiest defended in the world, an inland lagoon practically 
surrounded by land, with a narrow arm extending into the sea. and 
before that entrance a coral reef with a passageway of but five 
hundred to a thousand feet in width, where by guns in fortification 
the navies of the world may be stopped. But there was something 
else besides the naval and strategic importance of these islands that 
was demonstrated by the war. We obtained a great island empire 
upon the shores of the Orient, drawing sharply the attention of the 
American people to the great market for American produce existing 
in the East, especially in China. The acquisition of that territory 
came at a time when China, both territorially and politically, was 
being divided and changed; when a civilization, the oldest in the 
world, extending back thousands of years, older than Rome, older than 
Greece; a civilization that extended far back into the dim half light of 
tradition, beyond Egypt and Thebes and the Sphinx; a civilization 
that was old in the days of the Persian and the Babylonian Empire, 
was breaking up, emerging into the light and life of the present day.   
The possibilities of that market for American produce - and America 
now produces more than she can consume, and the disparity will in-
crease as the years go on - can not be overestimated. The possibilities 
of that great market have been secured to the people of the United 
States by a triumph of diplomacy achieved by a Republican 
President and a Republican Secretary of State, a triumph that 
challenges the admiration of the world.   So that both in a military 
and naval sense and commercially the importance of the 
acquisition of the Hawaiian Islands can not be exaggerated, and we 
may say to-day in fact what was said in argument for years in the 
past, that Hawaii is the Gibraltar of the Pacific in war, the key of 
the Pacific in peace, the paradise of the Pacific ever. But whether the 
annexation of the Hawaiian Islands may be considered as the 
consummation of a long-settled policy upon the part of the United 
States or as the commencement of a new era of territorial 
expansion and commercial development, the step that has been 
taken can not be retraced.   Hawaii is American territory by the 
solemn and the mutual agreement of two sovereign Republics.    It 
is American territory absolutely and, humanly speaking, forever. But 
while it is American territory, it does not possess American 
government.   A part of the United States, it has no government of 
the United States.  The annexation resolution, by which Hawaii 
became part of the United States, provided only for the continuance 
of a government in such manner and to be exercised by such persons 
as the President should appoint. Its provisions were substantially the 
acceptance of the cession, a provision that the land laws of the United 
States should not extend to Hawaii, for a government by the 
President, for the continuance of the customs laws of Hawaii, for the 
exclusion of the Chinese, and for the assumption of the debt of 
Hawaii to the extent of $4,000,000. Such a government,could be in its 
nature but temporary, a government depending simply upon the will 
of the President in the appointment of agents and in the decision as 
to the manner in which it should be exercised.    It is a government 
that is un-American, a government constituted against every 
principle and tradition of our country.   If it were to remain, it would 
be a most offensive monarchy.   Its only justification is that it was 
temporary. There was no provision for expression of the popular 
will; no provision for a legislature; no provision for the future 
needs of the people.   No courts of United States jurisdiction were 
established.   It was intended to be, and was in itself, and by its 
nature must have been, a mere makeshift, to remain in force only 
until Congress should act and give to the people of Hawaii a govern-
ment suitable to their needs and suitable to their fitness. And that 
was the way the government was put in practical operation, by 
the proclamation of the President on May 18, simply continuing in 
power those then in office, except those who bad relation to the 
foreign affairs of the islands, and continuing in force the 
municipal law of Hawaii that was not in violation of our own 
Constitution.                                             .                      That 
government has utterly failed to meet the needs of the

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