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their own profit in going to Hawaii.   They laid the foundation, 
industrial and commercial, of Hawaii upon broad grounds; they 
shaped its legislation in accord with the nigh model of American 
tradition.   They will be in the future, as in the past, the great vital, 
ennobling force that shall make Hawaii the fairest and best of the 
islands that have become part of the nation. For the citizenship that 
is created, those who will have the ballot, this bill provides for an 
educational qualification.   We give to Hawaii the intelligent ballot 
by providing in Hawaii the voter must be able to read, to write, and 
to speak either the English or the Hawaiian language.   If. there is 
any danger in this country to-day, it is the ignorant ballot.   If there 
is any safety for the people of Hawaii in the future, it is the intelli-
gent ballot.   Thus we propose to create and to give to these people a 
government of a free, representative, United States Territory, 
founded on justice and equality, and depending for its preservation 
and advancement upon the intelligent ballot of the United States 
citizen.    [Applause.] Now, Mr. Chairman, in this bill, Senate 222, 
the House reports the bill, striking out all after the enacting clause 
of the Senate bill and inserting that of the House.   The report that 
goes with the latter is not the report that was made with the House 
bill, and is very short.   The full report, which I would be glad for 
all members to have and to see, was made upon the House bill when 
it was reported, and is numbered 305; and I have endeavored to see 
that there should be a sufficient number by a reprint, so that each 
member of the House might have one in his possession. I do not 
propose to go over in detail the provisions of this bill.  Members of 
the committee are ready and will be glad to answer all questions 
and give all information upon the bill that may be desired. The first 
two sections simply define what is meant in the bill by the laws of 
Hawaii.   They are the laws which have been enacted by past 
legislatures of Hawaii and the constitution that was adopted by the 
republic. Mr. RIDGELY.   Will the gentleman allow me a question? 
Mr. KNOX.   Certainly. Mr. RIDGELY.   If I understand you, we 
are extending the same laws as to immigration and the importation of 
contract labor to Hawaii that we have in the United States, and the 
bill provides for a restricted franchise. Mr. KNOX.   Provides an 
educational qualification. Mr. RIDGELY.   Can the gentleman tell 
us as to about what per cent of population will be entitled to 
franchise under the provisions of this bill? Mr. KNOX.   About 80 
per cent of the people are able to read and write. Mr. RIDGELY.   
Of the entire population? Mr. KNOX.   Yes. Mr. RIDGELY.   
Including the Japanese and Chinese? Mr. KNOX.   No. Mr. COX.   
Mr. Chairman, I rise to a point of order.   This conversation might as 
well take place in Hawaii for all we can hear. The CHAIRMAN.   
Members of the House complain that they are unable to hear. Mr. 
CANNON.   I would suggest that the strong-lunged gentleman from 
Kansas go over to his side of the Chamber, and then the gentleman 
from Massachusetts, standing where he does now, will probably make 
himself heard. Mr. RIDGELY.   I availed myself of the liberty to 
come over to this side of the Chamber to hear the discussion, but 1 will 
get back on the other side.   Now, if the gentleman will permit me, I 
will repeat my question. The CHAIRMAN.   Does the gentleman 
from Massachusetts yield to the gentleman from Kansas? Mr. 
KNOX.   I do. Mr. RIDGELY.   I understand from the gentleman 
that the bill restricts the right of franchise to an educational 
qualification. My question is. What part of the entire population will 
be able to vote under this bill? Mr. KNOX.   About 80 per cent of all 
there is, except the Asiatics, who can not become citizens. Mr. 
RIDGELY.   What per cent are Asiatics? Mr. KNOX.   A little more 
than one-half - nearly 60 per cent. Mr. RIDGELY.   What part of 
the actual population of the island is affected by this bill? Mr. 
KNOX.   Less than half, perhaps 47 per cent, as to the right of 
citizenship and voting. Mr. WILLIAMS of Mississippi.   I would 
like to ask the gentleman what provision, if any, is made in this bill 
to prevent Asiatics born in the island of Hawaii from becoming 
voters? Mr. KNOX.   None whatever in this bill.   They would 
stand under the existing United States laws, under which a 
Chinaman can not be naturalized either in a Federal court or a State 
court. So, too, Japanese can not be naturalized.

Mr. WILLIAMS of Mississippi.   But Chinamen born in the United 
States become American citizens. Mr. KNOX.   Under the decision of 
the Supreme Court. Mr. WILLIAMS of Mississippi.   Yes; and so it 
would be if they were born in Hawaii.   Is there no provision in the bill 
that would curtail their right of suffrage there in any way except the 
educational qualification? Mr. KNOX.   No. Mr. WILLIAMS of 
Mississippi.   I understand.   I merely asked the question because I was 
afraid the gentleman's answer to a previous question, put him by the 
gentleman from Kansas, would leave a wrong impression. Mr. 
KNOX.   I am very much obliged to the gentleman.   I do not wish to 
have any misunderstanding. Mr. BARTLETT.   I wish to ask whether 
section 102, the last section of the bill, will not be somewhat in conflict 
with the decision of the Supreme Court to which the gentleman has 
referred? Mr. KNOX.   In what regard? Mr. BARTLETT.   It provides 
that Chinese who may be in the Hawaiian Islands when this act takes 
effect may within one year obtain certificates of residence under the act 
of May 5, 1892 - the very act which the Supreme Court of the 
United States decided did not apply to Chinese children born in this 
country.   If Hawaii became, in July, 1898, a part of this country, 
then children born there since July, 1898, of Chinese parents would be 
citizens of the United States. Mr. KNOX.   I should not agree that July 8 
-- Mr. BARTLETT.   I did not say July 8; I said July, 1898. Mr. 
KNOX.   I should not agree that on July 8 the Constitution and laws 
of the United States went into operation in Hawaii, except as they went 
there under the annexation resolution. Mr. BARTLETT.   The 
gentleman must admit that there might be a conflict of opinion on this 
point, and the Supreme Court of the United States might apply the 
principle of the decision contained on page 168 United States Reports. 
Mr. KNOX.   I do not see how wo could provide for that in the bill. 
Mr. BARTLETT.   It struck me that the provision of the bill was in 
conflict with the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States 
in that case. Mr. KNOX.   This section does not refer to children 
born in Hawaii since the annexation.   It simply provides a means by 
which Chinese who are there may obtain within a year certificates of 
residence which would entitle them to remain there.   That is all it 
undertakes to deal with; it applies only to Chinese who are actually 
there.    Now, the provisions of section 6 continue in force the municipal 
legislation of Hawaii - its municipal laws as they have existed in the 
past, provided they are not inconsistent with the Constitution and laws 
of the United States.   The Constitution and laws of Hawaii, which 
are in violation of the Constitution and laws of the United States, are 
repealed or abrogated. . Mr. SMITH of Kentucky.   In reference to 
section 6 I would like to ask a question.   That section provides - That 
the laws of Hawaii not inconsistent with the Constitution or laws of the United 
States or the provisions of this act shall continue in force, subject to repeal or 
amendment by the legislature of Hawaii or the Congress of the United States.
Now, this bill, when passed, will be a "law of the United States;" and 
when we have said that "the laws of Hawaii not inconsistent with the 
Constitution or laws of the United States shall continue in force, 
subject to repeal or amendment," we have said, it seems to me, as much 
as ought to be said. Mr. KNOX.   If there are any provisions of this 
bill which are inconsistent with the laws of Hawaii, then the laws of 
Hawaii must give way in the same manner as they would give way to 
our existing Constitution and laws.    The language to which the 
gentleman refers may not be absolutely necessary, but certainly it can 
do no harm. Mr. SMITH of Kentucky.   No; I do not see that any harm 
will be done; but it is always preferable to have the expressions in a 
statute as plain and concise as possible. Mr. RIDGELY.   I would like 
to ask another question.   Does this bill permit the immigration of 
Asiatic people after its passage? Mr. KNOX.   The bill makes Hawaii 
United States territory, extending to it the laws of the United States.   
Immediately upon this bill becoming a law, all our laws restricting 
immigration and prohibiting the importation of contract laborers take 
effect at once in Hawaii, and that is the reason of our desire that the 
bill may be promptly passed.   As 1 before stated, since July 8, the 
date of the annexation resolution, there have been some 30,000 
Japanese contract laborers imported into Hawaii. .   Mr. RIDGELY.   
That was my understanding of the bill, but the question and answer a 
while ago did not bring out that fact clearly.

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