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The people of the Hawaiian Islands, according to the authorities, 
in their present condition and as a whole, among all our new 
possessions, are perhaps best fitted for the representative govern-
ment of a United States Territory. Even in these islands, however, 
it has been found necessary to restrict suffrage and safeguard by 
legislation their admission as a Territory.
The Hawaiian group numbers seven inhabited islands and a 
dozen rocky or sandy reefs and shoals, with a total population of a 
little over 109,000. In this estimate of population the Japanese 
laborers imported since the passage of the annexation resolution 
(about 20,000) are not included.
These islands are directly in the track of the ocean-going steamers 
between our western coast and China, and valuable to us for 
coaling stations, for their trade, and because of their proximity to 
our coast.
We can easily care for and protect them. A considerable part of 
the population, composed of the Asiatics - the Chinese and 
Japanese - and part Hawaiians (mixed Hawaiian and foreign 
blood; is undesirable; but the native Hawaiians are orderly, 
peaceable, intelligent, industrious, and have shown steady ad-
vancement under the influence of education and Christianity since 
the advent of the first missionaries from New England in 1820. In 
the language of the report of the Hawaiian Commission -
The free school, free church, free press, and manhood suffrage have marked 
their progress. The government of the islands has shown the same progressive 
development. For sixty years it has been administered under a written 
constitution. The first constitution was promulgated in 1840.
The trade of the islands with the United States, considering their size 
and population, is valuable and extensive. According to the best 
statistics. the exports of the United States to the Hawaiian 
Islands in 1899 amounted to more than $10,000,000. THE 
imports from the Hawaiian Islands into the United States amounted  
in 1899 to more than $31,000.000; and, Mr. Chairman,
whether it true, as  a general proposition, that trade follows the 
flag, certainly in relation to Hawaii it seems to be true, and
doubtless the annexation of the Hawaiian islands will in the future 
be of advantage to the United States, as it already has 
been, by reason of this extensive trade and the character of the 
majority of its people.
With the Philippine Islands, however, Mr. Chairman, it is en 
tirely different. These islands, lying as they do about 680 miles 
from Hongkong, in China, and about 7,000 miles from the western 
coast of the United States and in the far Orient, requiring as they 
are now doing, and will continue to do, a large standing army 
and navy and involving an immense expense, as well as possible 
foreign complications, can not eventually prove advantageous to 
our people.
The total number of islands in the Philippine Archipelago is 
unknown. According to the best authorities they have never been 
counted, but their estimated number ranges all the way from 600 to 
2,000. It is said by Morris in his handbook:
The actual number does not probably exceed 1,200, if every barren rock be 
The best estimate of the land area in these islands is about 
115,000 square miles. Many of them are unimportant in size, mere 
rocks in the ocean. Several hundred are large enough to be 
inhabited. The largest two of the Philippine Islands, respectively the 
farthest north and the farthest south, are Luzon and Mindanao. As 
compared in area with the American States, the whole group of 
the Philippines, according to the best authorities, is of nearly the 
same extent as the New England States with New York and New 
Jersey added.
The population, like the number and area of the islands, is 
equally indefinite. According to the best statistics, the popula 
tion of the group is variously estimated at from 7,000,000 to 
12.000,000, The missionaries made an estimate in 1885 which 
showed 9,500.000.
The inhabitants of these islands belong to three distinct races, 
namely, the Malayan, the Indonesian, and the Negrito. The 
Negritos do not number to-day more than 25,000. It is stated in a 
recent compilation upon the Philippine Islands, made pursuant to a 
resolution of the distinguished Senator from Massachusetts [Mr. 
LODGE], Senate Document No. 171, that within a comparatively short 
time this race of Negritos has completely disappeared from several 
of the islands which it formerly inhabited.
So far as at present known, the Indonesian race is found only in 
the large island of Mindanao, the surface of which constitutes 
about one-third of the total land area of the archipelago. The re-
mainder of the archipelago is occupied by the Malayans, composing 
the great majority of the inhabitants of the Philippines. These 
Malayans have intermarried with Chinese extensively, and to a 
limited extent with Spaniards and other Europeans.
These people, Mr. Chairman, I insist, we do not want and we 
should not have as an integral part of the American people. We can 
not and ought not to make citizens of them, and to hold them as 
colonies is contrary to the genius and spirit of our Government

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