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Hawaii Organic Act: Congressional debates on Hawaii Organic Act

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3766
Below is an analysis of nationalities, counting all of Hawaiian blood together, 
also adding into one lot the foreigner of each nationality born in and oat of the 
islands:
Race.                                                           Male.     Female.    Total.
Native Hawaiian....................................... 20,648     18,856     39.504 
American......... .......................................    1,975       1,111      8,086 
British......................................................    1,406          844      2,250 
German....................................................       866          566     1,432 
French......................................................        56             45        101 
Norwegian................................................       216          162        378 
Portuguese................................................    8,202       6,989    15,191 
Japanese...................................................  19,212       5,195    24,407 Chinese. 
...................................................  19,167       2,449    21,616 South Sea 
Islanders...................................       321          134         455 Other 
nationalities......................................       448          152         600
Grand total.. .............................................  72,517     86,503  109,200
The population, by the census of 1890, was 89,990.   By islands, the population in 
1890 was as follows:                        
Island.                                                  Male.   Female. Total.
Oahu................................................  26,164     14,041     40,205 
Hawaii............................................... 22,632     10,653     33,285 Maui..... 
...........................................  11,435       6,291     17,726 Kauai.. ............. 
..............................   10,824       4,404     15,228 Molokai. ..........................................    
1,335          972       2,307 Lanai. ..............................................         51             54         
105
The preponderance of males over females in the population of the Hawaiian Islands, 
by nearly two to one, is accounted for by the large immigration of male laborers 
for work on the sugar and rice plantations.
EDUCATIONAL.
Hawaii has a thoroughly organized school system.   By an act of the legislature of 
1896 its administration was elevated in rank from that of a bureau, without 
representation in the executive, to that of a department of the government, with a 
cabinet minister as its official head.   By that enactment the minister of foreign 
affairs became also minister of public instruction and president ex-officio of a 
board of six commissioners of education.   It is pro-Tided that two of the 
commissioners may be ladies, and two ladies are, at present, members of the 
board. Schools were first established in the Hawaiian Islands by the American 
pioneer missionaries.   Though dead, they hare left records that speak.   E. W. 
Clark was one of the instructors of the Lahainaluna Seminary, and he wrote an 
article upon that institution in the Hawaiian Spectator of October, 1838.   This was 
a quarterly magazine," conducted by an association of gentlemen," as appears 
from its title page, and printed for the proprietors by Edwin O. Hall, the 
mission printer at Honolulu.   Mr. Clark wrote: "When the Sandwich Islands 
Mission commenced its operations in 1820 nothing like education was known at 
the islands.   The vernacular tongue had not even been reduced to a written 
language." Compare the condition thus stated with that described by a writer in 
the North American Review for July 1897 - seventy-seven years later - of the 
status at that time: "For many years in the past it was rare to find a native 
Hawaiian who could not read and write his native language.   There is a 
change now, but without retrogression.   It consists of a rapid advance toward an 
equally universal command of English by the native people." Mr. Clark, in his 
writing of sixty years ago, went on to tell of the course pursued by the 
missionaries to remedy the condition of gross darkness covering this people: "To 
reduce the language, as they found it in the months of the people, to a written 
form was their first object.   A few elementary school books were then prepared, 
and the business of education commenced. *   *   *   Soon multitudes were able 
to read and write (imperfectly, it is true) their own language.   Schools were 
established throughout the islands, and supplied with such teachers as could be 
obtained."   The instructor of Lahainaluna tells of the difficulties obstructing 
progress in the educational work, such as "the pressing engagements of the 
members of the mission in preaching, translating, and other labors," and goes 
on to tell of the birth of Lahainaluna Seminary, thus: "In this state of things, it 
was unanimously resolved, at a general meeting of the mission in June, 1831, to form 
a high school for raising up school-teachers and other helpers in the missionary 
work."   The design of the high school, later called the Mission Seminary, was 
quoted from its printed laws by Mr. Clark.   It was in part "to disseminate sound 
knowledge throughout the islands, embracing general literature and the sciences 
and whatever may tend to elevate the whole mass of the people from their 
present ignorance and degradation, and cause them to become a thinking, 
enlightened, and virtuous people." In September, 1831, the school went into 
operation at Lahainaluna, island of Maul, under the care of Lorrin Andrews as 
principal.   Mr. Andrews was the maternal grandfather and patronymic of Hon. 
Lorrin Andrews Thurston. lately Hawaiian minister to Washington.   Lahainaluna 
is now an institution of the public school system of Hawaii.   It occupies a 
commanding situation, overlooking the village of Lahaina and the Pacific.   
Industrial training is one of its strong features. Mr. Clark, telling of its earliest 
days, mentions that "a printing press was established in connection with the school, 
and placed under the charge of Mr. E. H. Rogers as printer."   It is interesting, 
therefore, to note that to day an educational monthly paper, The Progressive 
Educator, is printed and published at Lahainaluna - the pupils doing the 
mechanical work - under the auspices of the department of public instruction, 
which has recently provided a modern printing plant for the institution. So much 
space is given, to Lahainaluna, not only because it is the oldest superior school in 
the system as it now stands, but because it is one of several high schools in the 
islands where industrial education is made prominent.   With this statement, the 
others of the class need not be separately mentioned.   The discovery of the old 
missionary quarterly quoted in the foregoing, which happened in turning over a 
heap of musty tomes in the foreign office, enables another remarkable 
comparison to be made between the schools of those days and of the present.   
Edwin O. Hall has an article in the same number of  The Spectator on "Common 
Schools of the Sandwich Islands," in which he gives the number then, the year 
1838, under instruction as at least 15,000 children.                                . He remarks 
that some of the reports did not give numbers, and that probably 18,000 would 
come nearer the truth.   The figures he gives, by islands,

total up 15,818, which is singular as being about 800 more than the number of pupils 
officially reported in all schools of the islands for 1897, viz, 14,522, but "probably 
18,000 would come nearer the truth "for the latter part of 1898, judging from the 
fact of a constantly increasing condition of schoolhouse overcrowding.  Here is a 
comparison of school attendance in 1838 and 1897, by islands:                                                          
Islands.                                                             1838.      1898. 
Hawaii.........................................................    7,194       3,828
Maui, 2,743 and ..........................................    
Lanai, 149....................................................    2,892       2,488
Molokai.........................................................   1,061          157 
Oahu.............................................................    2,233       6,428 Kauai and 
Niihau...........................................    1,933       1,621
Total.............................................................   15,313     14,522
In 1838 Maui and Lanai are given separately, whereas they are coupled in 1897, 
and Niihau is not mentioned in 1838.   This comparative statement shows a great 
falling off since two generations in the number of children attending school on the 
islands other than Oahu, with a proportionate increase on that island, owing to its 
containing the capital city, Honolulu.   In another country such a condition might 
be taken, offhandedly, as an illustration of the process of the country losing to 
the town. It is something more than.that here.   They were, virtually, all native 
Hawaiian children, those attending school in 1838.   The total number of Ha-
waiian and part Hawaiian children enrolled as pupils in 1897, for the whole 
group, was 7.869, or but a few hundred more than the school attendance on the 
island of Hawaii alone in 1838.   So the situation simply reveals one phase of the 
diminution of the Hawaiian race, a fact that has been touch deplored but which is 
not for discussion in this connection. The comparison just instituted naturally 
leads to an inquiry as to the composition of our schools by nationalities.   What a 
conglomerate and polyglot mass of young humanity the teachers of Hawaii are 
expected to ground in the elements of intelligence and good citizenship is exhibited 
in this official table of school attendance in 1897:
Nationality.              Number of pupils.              Nationality.              
Number of pupils.
Hawaiian.......................       5,330                   Scandinavian.......................  106 
Part Hawaiian.... ...........       2,479                   French................................       2 
American....................             484                   Japanese .......................       560 
British.......... ....... ......             280                   Chinese...........................   1,078 
German.......................            302                    South Sea Islanders.........        10 
Portuguese .......................    3,815                   Other foreigners.................      76
Attendance was divided between public and private schools thus:                                                                      
Male.     Female.      Total.
Public schools ..........................................    5,925       4,643     10,568 Private 
schools .........................................    2,092       1,862       3,954
Grand total................................................    8,017       6,605     14,522
There were 132 public and 60 private schools in 1897.   One of the public schools 
on the little island of Niihau was the last survivor of schools taught in the 
Hawaiian language.   The number of pupils under 6 years of age, in all schools, 
was 805; between 6 and 15, 12,466, and over 15, 1,161.   Sexes were fairly well 
balanced in numbers, excepting in the case of Chinese, who had 773 boys to 305 
girls in school.   Deducting their excess of boys from the total excess, there will be 
only on excess of 44 boys to be divided among all other nationalities. The teaching 
force in all Hawaiian schools for 1897 was composed of nationalities as follows: 
Hawaiian, 57; part Hawaiian. 62; American, 253; British, 69; German, 12; French, 
6; Scandinavian, 6; Portuguese, 20; Japanese, 3; Chinese, 13; other foreigners, 6.   
There were 123 male and 175 female teachers in the public, and 82 male and 127 
female teachers in the private schools, a grand total of 507, or an average of 28.64 
pupils for each teacher.   In this connection, especially in view of the object of this 
book, a circular letter prepared by Mr. H. S. Townsend, inspector-general of 
schools, for replying to many inquiries from abroad is here quoted : "There is but 
one system of public schools in Hawaii.   One board employs all teachers.   
Permanency being an important consideration, candidates are favored who are, 
or who are expected to become, permanent residents of Hawaii.   All schools are 
in session ten months of each year, and all teachers are engaged by the year.   In 
consequence there are few vacancies in, the teaching force to be filled after the 
1st of September. There is no great educational reorganization in progress in the 
islands, though there is educational progress and development.   Our public-
school system is older than those of most of the States, and the teaching force is 
more permanent.   There is no scarcity of teachers, though there is difficulty in 
finding suitable teachers for some of the less desirable positions in the country 
districts, owing to the lack of suitable boarding places. Cottages are sometimes 
furnished teachers so that they may be able to board themselves.   There are 298 
teachers in the public schools, 134 of these being classified as Americans; but the 
majority of those so classified are of island birth.   The average annual salaries 
of men ore $745.50; of women, $551.80; of all teachers, $631.80.   Qualifications 
required here are similar to those required in those States having school systems of 
the better sort, though not quite so high as the requirements in California.   The 
standard is, however, gradually rising. "It is a waste of time and patience to 
send in applications from abroad. With these facts in view, those desiring to join 
the teaching force here should decide for themselves whether the prospects will 
justify the risks of the journey and the venture." Education is compulsory as to 
schools in general, and, with an exception herein noted, free as to the public 
schools.    The law requires that every child from 5 to 15 years of ago, inclusive, 
shall attend either a public or private school taught in English. Special police, 
called "truant officers," are appointed in every district, to enforce the 
compulsory-attendance clause.    English education in Hawaii gradually grew 
upon the Hawaiian stalk first planted by the missionaries, as already seen.   When 
schools were first started as state institutions, they were taught in the Hawaiian 
language.   English wag introduced as the foreign population increased.   When, in 
the course of time, the better classes of

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