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Anglo-Saxons.   Now, the Anglo-Saxons are the people that are 
responsible for the development of Hawaii.   The moment this bill is 
passed and becomes a law they can be voted down three to one on 
any of these propositions involving moral considerations.   If the 
Anglo-Saxons had the entire control, personally I should be willing 
to leave this proposition with them; but they have not the control, 
and they can be outvoted by the Hawaiians and Portuguese. Mr. 
KNOX.   But it is the Anglo-Saxons who do the most of the drinking. 
Mr. LITTLEFIELD.   That may be.   If the Anglo-Saxons do it, I 
would prohibit it, as far as they are concerned, in this Territory.   I 
am ready to stand on the proposition that the United States is 
prepared to declare as its policy that it is against the sale of 
intoxicating liquors in saloons.   With these suggestions I am ready 
to vote on the amendment. Mr. FINLEY rose. The CHAIRMAN.   The 
point of order has been made that debate on this amendment is 
exhausted.   The question is on the amendment offered by the 
gentleman from Massachusetts. Mr. FINLEY.   Mr. Chairman, I ask 
unanimous consent that I may have two minutes. The CHAIRMAN.   
The gentleman from South Carolina asks unanimous consent that he 
may have two minutes.   Is there objection?   [After a pause.]   The 
Chair hears none. Mr. FINLEY.   Mr. Chairman, as a matter of 
principle and conviction I would vote for the amendment offered by 
the gentleman from Massachusetts; and, in addition to that, I will say 
that there are reasons existing peculiar to the native Hawaiian which, 
if understood by this House, I believe would cause each and every 
member here to vote for the amendment.   I regret, Mr. Chairman, that 
I can not go into these reasons or discuss them here.   But it is true 
that these people are wasting away, the number decreasing; disease 
has dealt hardly with them, and I believe the best thing the 
American Congress can do for these people is to prohibit the sale of 
intoxicating liquors as a beverage in the Hawaiian Islands. Mr. 
BERRY.   Mr. Chairman, I ask unanimous consent to address the 
committee for five minutes. The CHAIRMAN.   The gentleman from 
Kentucky asks unanimous consent to address the committee for five 
minutes.   Is there objection?   [After a pause.]   The Chair hears none. 
Mr. BERRY.   Mr. Chairman, coming from a State that manufactures 
a very fine old beverage [laughter] , I do not feel that it is necessary 
in legislating for the Hawaiian Islands that we should limit the use of 
that product, even to satisfy the fanatical State of Maine, from 
which we once had a Maine liquor law.   My observation is that 
where you have prohibitory legislation, such as they had in the State 
of Maine, the liquor is always worse and more of it is drank than 
in a State where the people have the right to drink with the 
authority of law.    [Laughter.] I recollect that some years ago when I 
was in the State of Massachusetts, where there was a prohibitory 
liquor law, I stepped into a very quiet little place where you could 
get a drink for 15 cents, but you paid only for a sandwich or an 
egg; you did not buy the liquor.   I went in there for the purpose of 
satisfying my thirst; and there was another gentleman there about 
to take his drink.   I insisted - as it is a Kentucky custom never to 
drink alone - that he drink with me, which he promptly declined, 
considering that his acquaintance with me was not sufficient to 
permit him to do so.   So he took his egg and I took my egg. Each 
of us took a drink of whisky, and I found it very common whisky. 
Now, if you go into the State of Kentucky, where the moral 
sentiment of the community is about as good, I presume, as in 
Maine, especially in the logging country, you are always sure of 
getting a good drink of whisky, because there is no reason for 
giving you any other kind.   But when that whisky gets north of the 
Ohio River they begin to adulterate it and compound it, and by the time 
it gets up to Maine it has been adulterated three or four times 
between the place of production and the place of consumption.   That, 
I presume, is the reason why gentlemen from Maine object to it.   
[Laughter.] Now, although the popular idea is that every Kentuckian 
drinks a good deal of whisky, I will guarantee that the average 
Kentuckian knows how to control his appetite - knows when to drink 
and just how much to drink - while farther north you find men in-
clined to drink too much, who consequently become topers. Now, I do 
not believe in undertaking in this way to restrict the sale of liquor.   
And I do not believe that this is the place to adopt any regulation to 
control the consumption of liquor.   This is a legitimate matter 
which ought to be left to the people themselves of that locality - 
not regulated by the United States Government. I do not think the 
people of Maine or the people of Kentucky ought to dictate to the 
people of the Hawaiian Islands or the Philippines or wherever else oar 
dominions may extend - and they seem

inclined to go around the world.   I do not think it is the duty of 
Congress to regulate the character of the liquor that people drink, or 
how much they shall drink or when they shall drink.   Why, sir, the 
other day I saw a train of six cars start from my town carrying a 
cargo marked "Wiedeman's Beer," which was being sent across the 
continent, bound for the Philippines.   Sir, we are now shipping the 
very finest quality of malt liquor to the Philippine Islands and to 
Hawaii for the benefit of those people.   We want our markets 
extended.    [Laughter.] The question being taken on agreeing to the 
amendment, there were - ayes 56, noes 57. Mr. HILL.   I call for tellers. 
Tellers were ordered; and Mr. KNOX and Mr. GILLETT of Massachusetts 
were appointed. The House again divided;  and the tellers reported - 
ayes 66, noes 60. So the amendment was agreed to. Mr. NEWLANDS.   
I offer the amendment which I send to the desk. The Clerk read as 
Amend by inserting, after the word "association," in line 25, page 70, the words: 
"Provided, That no corporation, domestic or foreign, shall acquire or hold real 
estate in Hawaii in excess of 1,000 acres, and that real estate acquired or held by 
such corporation or association contrary hereto shall be forfeited and escheat to 
the United States.   But existing vested rights in real estate shall not be impaired."
Mr. KNOX.   I reserve a point of order on that amendment, that it is 
not germane to this section. The CHAIRMAN.   The point of order 
will be reserved. Mr. NEWLANDS.   Mr. Chairman, the purpose of 
this amendment is to limit a tendency toward land monopoly in the 
islands of Hawaii.   A few moments ago we had this question under 
discussion upon a provision of the bill which relieves the Territory of 
Hawaii from the operation of the general law regarding the 
Territories, a provision which limits the real-estate holdings of 
religious and charitable organizations to a value of $50,000.   The 
House was of the opinion that the conditions in Hawaii do not 
necessitate the application of that limitation, and by its vote ex-
pressed its disposition to allow the religious and charitable organ-
izations to extend their good work in that island without limit as to 
real-estate holdings.   But this proposition reaches the vital question 
whether we shall allow in those islands a system which will gradually 
monopolize all the lands in large holdings either in the hands of 
individuals or of corporations, the mass of the population being 
attached to the soil in a semi-servile capacity without right to a foot of 
land upon which they stand. This amendment respects vested rights.   
It does not propose to interfere with any of the holdings of that island 
at the present time, though those old holdings are large. The general 
custom there is to organize a corporation for the purpose of running a 
sugar plantation.   That corporation acquires a large tract of land, 
introduces extensive irrigation works, puts up a sugar factory, and 
commences business, and there is no doubt but that this kind of 
cooperation leads to the economical conduct of that business. This 
amendment does not interfere with that cooperation.   It simply limits 
the holdings of any corporation to 1,000 acres.   I am not sufficiently 
informed as to whether this limitation is too large or too small.   The 
purpose of this amendment is to get the subject-matter into this bill 
in some form, so that the committee of conference which will perfect 
the bill later on can take it up, and, having the subject-matter before 
them, cover it by some comprehensive provision.   It seems to me, 
however, that we should give them the basis of that work by an 
amendment here.   This amendment is not illiberal.   It provides for 
holdings of a thousand acres, and it does not interfere with any 
existing holdings. I have already stated the tendency in all these new 
possessions having tropical or semitropical climates to be toward 
land monopoly, and that tendency will increase as the value of these 
lands increases, by reason of the enlarged markets which annexation 
to our country will afford.   It is the great evil now in Hawaii.   It will 
be a greater evil in the future than it is now. We should follow this up 
by some system of report to Congress, or to the Secretary of the 
Interior, showing the extent and character of the holdings. The 
CHAIRMAN.   The time of the gentleman has expired. Mr. 
RIDGELY.   I ask unanimous consent that the gentleman's time be 
extended five minutes. The CHAIRMAN.   The gentleman from 
Kansas asks unanimous consent that the time of the gentleman from 
Nevada be extended five minutes.   Is there objection? There was no 
objection. Mr. NEWLANDS.   I was saying that we should extend 
this legislation further, and provide for a system of reports, through 
the surveyor-general of the Territory to the Secretary of the Interior, 
showing the holdings of these lands, by whom held, whether 
individuals or corporations, the number of acres held,

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