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4463
establish and to maintain order and secure good government, that 
persons other than citizens of that Territory shall be appointed to 
official positions there.   I confess that I am a little tired of hav- 
ing the Congress of the United States dictated to by the people of 
Hawaii in this and other respects.   I think we ought to legislate 
from this end and not from that end. 
Mr. CULLOM.   Well, Mr. President, that has been discussed 
more or less heretofore.   All I can say in reply is that I have not 
the least idea that it will work badly in that Territory;  but, on 
the contrary. I am very sure it will do no damage, but will prob- 
ably work for the welfare of those people. 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   Mr. President, unless the Senator desires 
not to be interrupted. I wish to say someting in this connection. 
Mr. CULLOM.   I have no objection.   I want this talked out, 
BO that we shall get a vote at some time. 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   As to all  the other Territories of the 
United States, we do not require that the appointees shall be cit- 
izens and residents at the time of their appointment in order to 
hold the positions of judges, governors, etc.   Why, then, should we 
make an exception as to Hawaii?   I perceive no reason why this 
should be done. 
The character of the population of Hawaii is certainly not a rea- 
son, because there are only 3.000 people of American descent or 
American blood upon the islands, and of those about 1,900 are males 
of all ages.   Therefore, the field from which to select these officers 
is exceedingly small, unless we appoint them from among the Ha- 
waiians: and of the native Hawaiians there are about 40.000; of 
the Chinese and Japanese between sixty and seventy thousand, 
and they are coming in constantly.   There are about 16,000 Portu- 
guese there.   Is that the kind of a population which entitles Ha- 
waii to be specially favored over Arizona and over New Mexico, 
where there are 100,000 Americans, and of the very best blood of 
America also? 
The fact of the matter is that these men - about 19 Americans 
out of 1,900 males - have established an oligarchy.   They control 
the sugar plantations and the sugar industry.   They are men of 
enormous wealth.  They are the recipients of the $80,000,000 we have 
remitted in duties; and they want to control and manage the gov- 
ernment.   There has been a steady effort from the start to fix this 
bill so that they may be able to manage the government.   The 
bill that came in here put it absolutely in their hands, and now it 
is proposed to perpetuate it in their hands.   The bill as amended 
by the Senate released their grasp.   They have their lobbyists 
here to look after their interests.   They have succeeded in getting 
provisions in the bill that they think most essential, so far as they 
could get them in, for a limitation of the suffrage, requiring that 
from their number shall be selected the officeholders of that coun- 
try, so that they can get control of the governor, of the courts, and 
of the enormous veto power, so as to require two thirds of the mem- 
bers of the legislature to overturn the veto, and so that they can 
use the courts for other purposes. 
In the bill also we have provided that a man may be imprisoned 
and put at labor under a taskmaster if he fails to pay his tax, even 
his poll tax: and so far as possible we are undertaking to perpet- 
uate this oligarchical government of a handful of enormously rich 
men, made rich by the taxation of the people of the United States 
to turning over to them the remitted duties.   We have been try- 
ing to hedge their power around, but now it is proposed that the 
judges and the governor shall be selected from their ranks.   Then 
we are told what great men they are and what enormous ability 
they have.   It is simply a sample of the tendencies of this Govern- 
ment at the present time toward a plutocracy.   We make one 
thing for Porto Rico, another thing for Hawaii, and something 
else for the Philippines.   I fail to find any reason why this should 
be done. 
Mr. CULLOM.   Mr. President, the Senator knows just as well 
as anybody else, when he compares the qualifications of the people 
of Porto Rico as equal to those of Hawaii, that it is not true.   A 
large portion of the people of Hawaii are well qualified for self- 
government; and the Senator knows that the Porto Ricans. so far 
as we have any information about them, are not particularly well 
qualified for self-government. 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   Who is it in Hawaii that is particularly 
well qualified, except simply the Americans? 
Mr. CULLOM.   The Americans, the Englishmen, the Germans, 
the Portuguese, and many of the natives as well. 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   Mr. President -- 
Mr. CULLOM.   I do not want to yield any longer. 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   I only want to answer one statement made 
by the Senator.   He says I know -- 
Mr. CULLOM.   I think you do. 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   I am on the Committee on Pacific Islands 
and Porto Rico, and before the committee came men from Porto 
Rico equal in intellect and ability to these Hawaiians, and I be- 
lieve far exceeding them in character. 
Mr. CULLOM.   The Senator knows, I think, that the great body 
of the people of Porto Rico can neither read nor write.

Mr. PETTIGREW.   About 20 per cent of them.                        
Mr. CULLOM.   He knows. I think, that nearly every man in 
Hawaii can read and write. 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   That is true; but this bill as it now stands 
excludes them, even if they can read and write, from any partici- 
pation in the Hawaiian government. 
Mr. CULLOM.   That is very easily said. 
Mr. SPOONER.   I should like to ask the Senator from Sooth 
Dakota - I ask him only for information - what warrant he has 
when he makes the statement that under this bill or under the 
law a man in Hawaii can he imprisoned for failure to pay his 
taxes?   It may be true, but 1 have not noticed it. 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   We have not repealed this law of Hawaii:
SEC. 863. In case of personal taxes due and unpaid on the 1st day of Jan- 
nary in each year, if no personal property can be round whereon to distrain, 
the assessor may cause the arrest and detention of the person of such tax- 
payer by and under a warrant issued and signed by the assessor or his dep- 
uty, in substance in the form following, viz.
Then it gives the form of the warrant. 
The next section provides that the officer receiving such war- 
rant -- 
Mr. HOAR.   Read the form of the warrant   That is a very 
important part of it. 
Mr. SPOONER.   What is the warrant? 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   I will read the form of the warrant.   I 
did not think it was important.   I thought what I read had cov- 
ered the case pretty well, but I will read the last paragraph of 
section 883 of the laws of Hawaii, giving the form of the warrant:
Territory of Hawaii, island of --- , district of --- : 
To --- , chief sheriff, or any constable or police officer of the district of 
--- , island of --- of --- , in the Island of --- , having failed and neg- 
lected to pay the sum of --- dollars assessed upon him for personal taxes 
for the year ---, now due and unpaid, and no property being found belong- 
ing to the said --- whereon to levy by distress: 
Therefore, by virtue of the authority in me vested by law, I hereby order 
and command you to forthwith arrest and take said --- before --- , dis- 
trict magistrate of --- , island of --- , to show cause, if any he has, why 
he, the said --- , should not be sentenced by said magistrate to be impris- 
oned at hard labor until he discharge the amount of said tax and costs as by 
law provided. 
Hereof fail not, but of this order, with your proceedings thereon, make 
due return.   Given under my hand this --- day of --- , A. D. --.
Assessor of --- Division, Island of --- .
Then the law provides that a man shall be imprisoned at hard 
labor until that tax is worked out. 
Mr. SPOONER.   Is that left in force? 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   That is left in force. 
Mr. CULLOM.   Are yon sure about that? 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   I can not find it in the list of repealed sec- 
tions, and I have examined in order to find it. 
Mr. CULLOM.   We have a provision in this bill which repeals 
all laws in conflict with the bill we are considering. 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   I can not find that this law of Hawaii is 
repealed.   1 may be mistaken, but I can not find any such repeal, 
and I have been examining the matter very diligently. 
Mr. HOAR.   Before we pass from that, I should like to ask the 
Senator if he understands it was the intention to repeal that por- 
tion of the Hawaiian law, because I think if it should happen that 
there is any doubt about the matter, such a declaration as the 
Senator now makes would be very important. 
Mr. CULLOM.   The purpose of the commission, in the first 
place, and then of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the 
Senate, and it certainly has been my purpose, was to repeal all 
provisions of the Hawaiian law which imprisoned any man for 
debt, whatever the character of the debt might be. 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   There is no doubt bat what that law is 
left in existence, so far as I can see. 
Mr. CULLOM.   If I may be allowed now, I want to go on.   I 
believe I have got through with section 80. 
Mr. TILLMAN.   I have made a very careful examination of 
the bill and the chapters of the law on pages 3, 4, 5, and 6, where 
yon have repealed certain of the Hawaiian statutes, and I do not 
find that these two are repealed. 
Mr. PETTIGREW.   I can not find them. 
Mr. CULLOM.   I suppose the provisions of the bill repeal them. 
Mr. SPOONER.   What provisions? 
Mr. TILLMAN.   What. provision of the bill could possibly re- 
peal them?   This is a legal process for collecting taxes.   It is not 
an imprisonment for debt, although it actually amounts to that. 
Mr. CULLOM.   I have not had time to look up the statutes to 
see exactly as to that. 
Mr. TILLMAN.   I have not been able to find it in the section 
of the bill in which those two sections of the Hawaiian law have 
been repealed. 
Mr. CULLOM.   I understand that. 
In section 81 the House inserted the words "circuit courts" in 
addition to the supreme court, struck out the provision in regard

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