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of every description, and a large number anchored in the stream compelled 
to wait for days before being able to discharge, on account of the small ac- 
   The revenue from import duties in 1899, adds Mr. Sewall, was 
$400,000 in excess of that of 1898. 
The second column in the tables of "Trade by articles" gives the 
increases in both imports and exports of Hawaii for 1899 over 1898, 
which reach nearly all of the articles of trade. 
    It must be remembered that the duties collected upon this com- 
merce have all gone into the Hawaiian treasury.   So it has been 
with all moneys accumulating in the Hawaiian postal service up 
to this time.   But both the customs and the postal receipts will, 
after the passage of this bill, come to the United States Treasury. 
Now let us look a little at the geographical situation of Hawaii 
as related to other parts of the world, and especially to this coun- 
try.   I quote from the reports of the Hawaiian commission made 
to the President and published by the Fifty-fifth Congress: 
The Hawaiian Islands are located in the Pacific Ocean, about 2,100 miles 
southwest from San Francisco, and are between 18 and 23 north latitude 
and 154 and 101 west longitude.   The latitude or distance from the equator 
is about the same as that of Cuba.   The climate would probably be the same 
as that of Cuba wore it not modified and equalized by the northeast trade 
winds, which prevail for about nine months of the year, coming over thou- 
sands of miles of ocean uncontaminated by impurities.   The Japanese gulf 
stream is a broad current of cool water, flowing like a river across the Pacific 
Ocean, which lowers the temperature within its vicinity materially. 
There are other somewhat permanent currents and winds which affect 
temperature, and these great natural agencies tend constantly to neutralize 
the tropical heat, which would otherwise seriously affect the temperature of 
the islands.   The annual average of temperature at Honolulu is 72 or 73 F., 
while the lowest is 55 and the highest 88.   During the warmest month of 
the year, September, the temperature, except for about two hours at mid- 
day, stands at about 78.   There is never any frost or snow, except upon the 
high mountain peaks, where at the altitude of nearly 14,000 feet there are at 
times considerable snowfalls.
The Hawaiian group numbers seven inhabited islands and eleven or twelve 
email rocky or sandy shoals or reefs, with a total area of 6,740 square miles. 
They are described as follows: 
Population. 1896. 
Hawaii, area 4,210 square miles ..... __ .............. _ .............. _ 33,285 
Maui, 760 square miles ......... - . -- . -- -- -- . ----- . - .... 17,726 
Oahu. 600 square miles..... ...................................... __ ...... 40,205 
Kauai, 590 square miles (rich farming and grazing lands) -- - ... -- 15,228 
Molokai, 270 square miles (agricultural and grazing) ..... ________   2,307 
Lanai, 150 square miles (devoted to sheep raising) -- . -- . -- -- .       105 
Niihau, 97 square miles (leased to sheep raisers) . __ __ ... __ ......      164 
Kahoolawe, 63 square miles. 
Molokini, small size. 
Lehua, small size. 
Nihoa, 500 acres (about), precipitous rock, 400 feet high (244 miles northwest 
from Honolulu). 
Laysan, 2,000 acres (about), guano island, low and sandy, 30 feet high (800 
miles northwest from Honolulu). 
Gardeners Island, two inaccessible rocks, 200 feet high, about 1,000 feet long 
(607 miles northwest of Honolulu). 
Liscansky Island, 500 acres (about), low and sandy, 25 to50 feet high (920 miles 
northwest from Honolulu). 
Ocean Island, 500 acres (about), low and sandy (1,800 miles northwest from 
Necker Island, 400 acres (about), a precipitous rock, 300 feet high (400 miles 
northwest from Honolulu). 
Palmyra Island, a cluster of low islets, about 10 miles in circumference, with 
lagoon in center; has a few cocoannt trees (1,100 miles southwest of Hono- 
Kaula. small, rocky island, a few miles southwest of Niihau. 
French Frigate Shoal, scattered shoals or reefs.
An important subject of our investigation was that of the adaptability of 
the several races of the people who inhabit the islands for American citizen- 
ship and their ability to sustain the obligations which attach to the right of 
suffrage.   The American idea of universal suffrage presupposes that the 
body of citizens who are to exercise it in a free and independent manner 
have, by inheritance or education, such knowledge and appreciation of the 
responsibilities of free suffrage and of a full participation in the sovereignty 
of the country as to be able to maintain a republican government. 
The following different races and nationalities of people now occupy the 
Hawaiian Islands: 
Hawaiians and mixed blood........................ --- ................   39,000 
Japanese ..................... ............ .................................   25,000 
Chinese............... --- ............. -- .... -- . - .......... --- ..   21,500 
Portuguese _ ... - ... --- --- ... - --- -- .. --- --- --- --   15,000 
Americans -- --- --- -- --- ---- --- -- .. --- --- -- .    4,000 
British..............--- .................... .......... .................    2,250 
Germans and other Europeans. --- ---- --- ......... - -----    2,000 
Polynesians and miscellaneous -- - - .'. -- -- - .. - . -- ...    1,250
Total.- ............... ............................................. 110,000 
The native Hawaiians are a kindly, affectionate people, confiding, friendly, 
and liberal, many of them childlike and easy in habits and manners, willing 
to associate and intermarry with the European or other races, obedient to 
law and governmental authority.   Many of the Japanese are contract labor- 
ers, who are engaged upon the sugar plantations.   Others are employed as 
day laborers.   There are some, however, who have become merchants and 
mechanics, who conduct business for themselves, and who exhibit the national 
characteristics of skill, thrift, and ability. 
There are about 700 Chinese who have been naturalized into the Hawaiian 
republic.  Many of the Chinese and Japanese on the islands are, or have 
been, brought there under permits by that government, and contracts under 
which they are bound to work for a term of years, and to return at the expi- 
ration of the contract term of service.   At the expiration of their terms they  
are either returned to their native country, or renew their labor contracts, 
or become day laborers.  
Nearly all Chinese laborers desire and expect to go back to China at death, 
if not before.   The Japanese are not so particular as to returning; but with 
their accumulative habits they frequently attain a position and standing in 
business which makes it desirable to them to remain in the islands.

The Americans, although in such a small minority practically dominate 
the governmental affairs of the country, and, with the British and Germans, 
and part-blood Hawaiian-Americans together, constitute the controlling ele- 
ment in business.   The Chinese and Japanese do not now possess political 
power, nor have they any important relation to the body politic, except as 
laborers.   The Portuguese are largely immigrants from the islands and colo- 
nies of Portugal in the Atlantic, and have never been very closely tied to 
their mother country.   With the certain attrition which is bound to exist 
between them and the Americans in Hawaii, and under the influence of the 
existing public-school system, which makes the study of the English language 
compulsory, they promise to become a good class of people for the growth of 
republican ideas. 
It will, of course, be observed that this entire population of 110,000 is domi- 
nated, politically, financially, and commercially, by the American element.
Hawaii, the largest of the islands and from which the group takes its 
name, contains nearly 2,500,000 acres of land, and has a population of nearly 
34,000.   Its principal town is Hilo, situated on Hilo Bay, at the month of the 
Wailuku River.   Hilo possesses several churches, a good hotel, and several 
business houses.   There are three lofty mountains on the island of Hawaii, 
viz, Manna Kea, Manna Loa, and Hualalai.   The two first are nearly 14,000 
feet high and the other 8,000.   Upon Manna Loa are two great volcanoes, 
Kilauea, upon the side of the mountain, at an elevation of 4,000 feet, and the 
other, Mokuaweoweo, at the top, or at about 13,500 feet elevation.   These two 
great volcanoes are still alive, but not now in eruption. 
We visited Kilauea and crossed its broad lava fields within the walls of its 
original crater, and now about 500 feet below the rim or edge of the wall.   On 
the southerly portion of this broad lava bed is a still deeper pit, or live cra- 
ter, apparently some 800 feet below the surface of the broad lava field before 
mentioned, from the very bottom of which arises a whitish sulphurous smoke 
so dense as to hide from full view the surface of the burning, seething liquid 
far below.   This is what is called "Halemaumau," "the house of fire," when 
the volcano is active and in eruption, but it is now very quiet and smoky. 
Yet even now numerous crevices are found, some of them 2 or 3 miles from 
this pit or lake, from which smoke or steam constantly arises, and in which 
sticks thrust down a few inches by us readily took fire.   Around some of 
these crevices an efflorescence of sulphur was noticed, and on examination 
we found deposits of pure native sulphur so hot from the subterranean foun- 
tain, perhaps 3 miles away, that it could not be handled.   It must be remem- 
bered that this description refers only to Kilauea, and not at all to the great 
volcano itself at the top of the mountain, and called "Mokuaweoweo," which 
during the ages and ages past has poured the lava over the island many times. 
The magnitude of this mountain is hardly believed at first sight, but the 
distance is not less than 60 miles from the base on one side to the other.   And 
from the crater of Kilauea, on the side of Manna Loa, to the crater of Mokua- 
weoweo, at the top of the same mountain, is about 26 miles.   The side slopes 
of these great mountains comprise practically all the agricultural land upon 
this island.   This can nearly all be cultivated after it is cleared from its lux- 
uriant vegetation.   Some of it, however, has such a rank growth of tree 
ferns, wild bananas, and all sorts of tropical trees and vines as to require a 
cost of from $20 to $60 per acre to clear it.   There are great fields of sugar 
cane on this island, the best of which yields under favorable conditions from 
5 to 6 or more tons of sugar per acre. 
Maui is believed to be one of the oldest volcanic islands.   Much of the lava 
of which it is composed has become decomposed and available for easy culti- 
vation, while the use of artesian water for irrigation has made the sugar 
lands the most profitable known.   This island has upon it the great volcano 
of Haleakala, now and for centuries entirely quiet, but which is the largest 
extinct volcano in the world.   This crater is half a mile deep and 20 miles in 
On this island artesian water is pumped in quantities of 6,000,000 gallons 
daily to the height of 400 feet, for sugar irrigation.   The lands on the south 
and west sides of the island are mostly cattle, ranches and pasture lands, 
while on the north and east the numerous streams furnish abundance of 
water for prosperous plantations of sugar and coffee.   This island was once 
a kingdom.   The town of Lahaina was its capital and contained the palaces 
of the king.   Some of the plantations on this island were visited by us and 
were truly places of beauty.   They evidenced great enterprise, and yield 
large profits from the great crops of sugar.
Kauai, the most northwesterly of the group, is nearly circular in form 
and about 25 miles in diameter, having an area of about 590 square miles.   It 
is believed to be one of the oldest of the Hawaiian Islands; has a deeper soil 
and a greater proportion of naturally arable land.   It seems to have been 
originally formed by eruptions of Mount Walaleale, the great central peak 
6,000 feet in height, a volcano which has been extinct from time immemorial. 
There are several mountain streams flowing from an elevated natural res- 
ervoir, or lake, in the central plateau. 
The valleys between the mountain ranges, which radiate from the interior, 
are broad and deep, having large areas of rich bottom lands, very productive  
under the influence of irrigation, which is largely in use for the sugar plan- 
tations.   Kauai was, in the remote past, a kingdom by itself, and the stories 
of kings and chiefs and warriors of Kauai are the traditional histories of the 
island.   Lihue, the chief settlement, has about 3,500 inhabitants.   The Falls 
of Wailua are romantically situated in the midst of a luxuriant forest, the 
river falling 180 feet in one unbroken sheet.   Coffee, sugar, rice, and some 
other products are grown with profit.   The inhabitants of Kauai take much 
pride in their fertile lands. 
Oahu, upon which is situated Honolulu, the capital city, is the most popu- 
lous of the islands, having over 40,000 inhabitants.   It is devoted largely to 
pasturage and agriculture.   Several very profitable sugar plantations are 
now operated on this island, and the full development of the artesian water 
supply for the irrigation of growing sugar cane is here exhibited.   Daring 
the past two years the yield of sugar upon one of the favorably situated plan- 
tations has exceeded expectation, amounting to from 9 1/2 to 10 1/2 tons of sugar 
per acre.   Honolulu Harbor, although not large enough to accommodate a 
rapidly growing commerce, is a deep-water opening through the coral reefs 
at the month of the Nuuanu Valley, in front of the city of Honolulu.
A few miles away is Pearl Harbor, a naturally excavated harbor, covering 
8 or 10 square miles of water surface and ranging from 20 to 90 feet deep. 
It is expected that by a small appropriation a coral reef, which bars the 
entrance from the ocean for large vessels, will be removed by the Govern- 
ment of the United States, whereupon this will furnish the best harbor on 
the Pacific.   Some of the most beautiful and enchanting residence sites to be 
found are at Honolulu.   A railway 55 miles in length connects Honolulu with 
Waialua and several intervening points.   Several very prosperous business 
enterprises are established at Honolulu, and, altogether, the location, for 
many reasons, is a most desirable one for commercial and shipping facilities.

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