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Hawaii Organic Act: Congressional debates on Hawaii Organic Act

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Molokai is a long, narrow island, about 40 miles in length and less than 10 
miles in width.   The eastern half of Molokai has some very wild mountain 
scenery and in some places a luxuriant vegetation.   Recently much atten- 
tion has been given to irrigation from artesian water, and a large area is ex- 
pected soon to be brought under profitable culture.   Still, most of the island 
is devoted to pasturage.   Quite a large number of deer have their haunts on 
this island.
Niihau is an island of nearly 100 square miles, the most of the land upon 
which has been leased to sheep raisers.   There are about 100 native inhabit- 
ants, who adhere in manners and style of living to the customs of their earlier 
ancestors.   The handiwork of the natives in the making of a kind of mats is 
known all over the islands.   They are called "Niihau mats," and bring large 
prices from the collectors of curios.   Apart of this island consists of a coral 
reef, uplifted by some convulsion of nature, but now largely covered by 
volcanic material washed down from the mountains.
Lanai comprises about 100,000 acres, devoted almost wholly to sheep rais- 
ing and the production of wool.   It has only about 100 inhabitants, and is 
rarely visited except by persons interested in the sheep-raising or wool- 
growing industry. 
There is a great diversity in the amount of rainfall in different localities, 
but it is thought that about 60 inches per annum is the average over the 
group.   On the windward (northeast) side of some of the islands at certain 
low altitudes the rainfall reaches 150 inches, as at Hilo, or even 200 inches, as 
at the volcano of Kilauea, while on the leeward side, at the sea level, very 
little rain falls, but up the mountain sides there is usually abundant mois- 
ture.   The climate is particularly healthy, both in the dry or wet localities, 
it being claimed even that the frequent showers in some places do not satu- 
rate the air with moisture.   There is very seldom much humidity in the 
atmosphere, and even in damp or marshy districts there is seldom any ma- 
laria or fever germs.
On the island of Hawaii the rainfall at two stations, Kaumana and Olaa, 
was, respectively, 136 and 146 inches.   For the entire island the average rain- 
fall was 65 inches.   On the island of Maui the average was 27| inches.   On 
Kauai the average was 46 inches.
The following daily papers are printed In Honolulu: Pacific Commercial 
Advertiser, English: Daily Bulletin, English; Hawaiian Star, English; Inde- 
pendent, English; Aloha Aina, native; Ka Loea Kalaiaina, native; Hawaiian 
Shimpo, Japanese. 
Also the following semi weeklies: Hawaiian Gazette, English; Shim Nipon, 
Japanese; Yamato Shimbun, Japanese. 
Also the following weeklies: weekly Hawaiian Star, English; The Kuokoa, 
native;  O Luso, Portuguese;  O Directo, Portuguese;  Hawaiian Chinese 
News. Chinese; Chinese Times, Chinese; Chinese Chronicle, Chinese; Ka 
Makaainana, native. 
And the following monthlies: Al Boas Novas, Portuguese (sectarian); The 
Paradise of the Pacific, English; The Planters' Monthly, English; The Friend, 
English: Anglican Church Chronicle, English. 
And the following quarterlies: The Honolulu Diocesan Magazine, English; 
The Young Men's Christian Association Review, English. 
The Hilo Tribune, weekly, and the Hawaii Herald, weekly, are published 
In English at Hilo, on the island of Hawaii.
Central Union Church (Congregational).          
Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The Christian Church. 
The Christian Chinese Church. 
The Salvation Army. 
St. Andrew's Cathedral (Episcopal); first and second congregations and 
Chinese congregation. 
Roman Catholic Church. 
Protestant Mission, Portuguese. 
Japanese Union Church, connected with Hawaiian Board of Missions. 
Japanese Church. 
Kawaihao Church, Congregational, native. 
Kaumahapili Church, Congregational, native.
The Hawaiian government has devoted its most earnest efforts to the pro- 
tection of the inhabitants against the introduction of dangerous contagions 
and infections diseases, and a strict quarantine is maintained at points 
where ships from infected ports might call. 
The board of health is one of the most important agencies in the islands 
for the preservation and promotion of the public health, and is given almost 
plenary powers under the law.   Ordinary malarial fevers are quite rare. 
There are. however, occasional cases of typhoid fever, especially among the 
United States troops recently stationed at Honolulu.   There have been oc- 
casional epidemics of various diseases at times during the past one hundred 

Under present health regulations, with the experience gained, the govern- 
ment can, it is thought, cope with epidemic diseases bettor than that of al- 
most any other country. 
Live stock, including cattle, sheep, and swine, are raised to some extent 
It is stated that the value of live stock produced ranks third in amount of all 
the agricultural products of the islands.
The Hawaiian Islands maintain a prison system, the principal penal insti- 
tution corresponding to the State prisons of the various States of the Union, 
while on each of the larger islands a prison for the use of their respective 
local offenders is provided.   In addition there is in each district a lockup or 
detention calaboose, in some of which are detained small gangs held for 
minor offenses and sentenced for short terms to perform street or road labor. 
Where possible the plan of placing but one prisoner to a cell is adhered to. 
The Honolulu prison is under the charge of a jailor and several prison guards, 
the whole system subject to the supervision of the marshal of the islands, 
who is responsible to the board of prison inspectors appointed by the minister 
of the interior.
The foregoing gives briefly a description of the principal fea- 
tures of the country.   It is now about eighteen months since the 
Stars and Stripes were formally raised over the country, and dur- 
ing that period, although the extension of the laws of the United 
States has been held in abeyance until the further action of Con- 
gress, yet the business of Hawaii has experienced the greatest 
prosperity, and every material interest of the people and the conn- 
try has participated in the general welfare. 
Mr. President, I am more than pleased that the labors of the 
Hawaiian Commission, in which I had the honor of participating, 
now bid fair to result in the establishment of Territorial govern- 
ment as a part of the United States.   I am highly gratified to 
think that the new Territory of Hawaii, which has come to us 
willingly and peacefully in the progress of the nation's evolution, 
will doubtless stand as a bright monument marking almost the 
starting point of American expansion over the island provinces of 
the Pacific.   No citizen of the United States need ever feel any 
doubt as to the intellectual, moral, or financial standing of the peo- 
ple who inhabit Hawaii.   They bring to us a splendid educational 
system, a prosperous and profitable agricultural establishment, 
yielding large profits to the sugar planters and the coffee and rice 
Mr. President, it has been suggested to me and to the Senate 
that there are one or two provisions in the bill which are not sat- 
isfactory to the Senate.   1 do not know whether a majority of the 
Senate are for the provisions that have been controverted, but 1 
desire to say that at the present moment the Senator from Massa- 
chusetts [Mr. LODGE] and the Senator from Alabama [Mr. MOB- 
OAK] , conferees on the bill, are absent.   The Senator from Ala- 
bama, I understand, is ill.   He has not been out for two or three 
days, at least.   So if the bill should go back to the conferees, there 
could be nothing done with it until one or the other of the con- 
ferees of the Senate, both of whom are absent, can be secured to 
give attention to the subject. 
Mr. HOAR.   Put on other conferees. 
Mr. CULLOM.   The Senator from Alabama is in town, but he 
has been ill for several days.   The Senator from Massachusetts 
has been called to New York or somewhere. East.   I should like 
very much to get the report ratified and out of the way, but I want 
to be entirely fair and frank, as I think I have been in connection 
with the subject to-day in trying to uncover every fact connected 
with it, so that Senators would not be misled. 
Mr. BACON.   I should like to ask the Senator a question, in 
view of his expressed desire that the report shall be ratified.   In 
the bill as agreed upon by the conference committee, the fifth 
subdivision of section 60 reads as follows:
Fifth. Prior to such registration having paid, on or before the 31st day of 
March next preceding the date of registration, all taxes due by him to the 
I wish to inquire of the Senator whether he agrees with the state- 
ment that if the conference report is agreed to and this becomes a 
law that that date, being fixed, necessarily will limit the persona 
who can be this year registered and this year participate in the 
election which will select the officers for this Territory to those 
who have heretofore been on the registration list, because the date 
has passed.   That number, I understand, is less than 3,000.   So, 
instead 14,000 men, which it was stated when the bill was in the 
Senate before would be the number of those who would be enfran- 
chised and entitled to participate in this election, there will be less 
than 3,000.   I want to ask the Senator if he recognizes the correct- 
ness of that, and if he does so recognize it, if he himself would 
personally favor the enactment of a bill into a law which would 
have that effect. 
Mr. CULLOM.   I would not. 
Mr. BACON.   Does not the Senator agree that that must neces- 
sarily be the effect of it? 
Mr. CULLOM.   I have been in doubt about it.   I was going to 
suggest that I would ask the Senate to postpone the further con- 
sideration of the report to-day, so that I may learn whether the 
Senator from Alabama, one of the conferees, can be present to- 
Mr. BACON.   If the Senator will pardon me, the course which

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