University of Hawaii at Manoa Library
Hawai'i Council for the Humanities
Hawai'i Council for the Humanities

Final Report: Digitization for Preservation of an Important Hawaiian Language Newspaper - Ka Nupepa Kuokoa


This project encompassed digitization of an important Hawaiian language newspaper of the nineteenth century and subsequent mounting on the World Wide Web. The project request sought funding to purchase thirty-one (31) reels of microfilm of the Hawaiian language newspaper Ka Nupepa Kuokoa and hire student assistance to scan the microfilm, process the resulting digital images, and mount the files on an existing web page.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa was published from October 1861 through December 1927. It was the longest-running Hawaiian language newspaper. Few libraries in the State have this newspaper on microfilm but increasing numbers of individuals and educational institutions are connecting to the Web.

This project enhanced an ongoing initiative funded via IMLS to provide web-based access to microfilmed newspapers the project. The reels purchased were designated to be stored as copy masters after the scanning was completed, thereby ensuring that the archival master copies will not have to be used when replacement reels are needed, and thus preventing deterioration of the archival master whenever a replacement is produced. Electronic access will also delay the deterioration of microfilm due to heavy use, and in some cases, prevent the loss of the microfilm itself.

Project Summary

The fund account was officially established by the University of Hawaii Office of Research Services effective September 16, 1999. The request for duplication of the microfilm reels was submitted shortly thereafter, and the search for a student assistant to fill the scanning position began. The duplicated reels arrived October 15, 1999. A graduate student was hired 2 weeks later. Unfortunately that student simply stopped reporting for work in mid-February. Another student was hired in mid-April. The training period was protracted, and regrettably, the student was not able to develop much speed in the work. However, a basic format for the presentation of the newspaper images was developed and a framework of HTML documents was established.

View the Ka Nupepa Kuokoa Web site

The Library will be undergoing renovation and asbestos removal, requiring the relocation of equipment and staff. It is hoped that the scanning work will resume during the summer, and that one or more Library and Information Studies (LIS) students will sign on for internship work on the scanning during the Fall 2001 semester. Since the framework of the Kuokoa pages is defined, and the parameters of the scanning work were documented as a result of this project - future work on the rest of the reels should proceed more rapidly if motivated student(s) can be found to do the work.

  1. Negative microfilm copies of thirty-one reels of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa were purchased from the Hawaii State Archives and reproduced by Advanced MicroImage.
  2. The original web site for scanned Hawaiian Language Newspapers ( was migrated to a larger server managed directly by Hamilton Library. A "redirect" to the new page was placed on the original web server and the new site has been announced in Hawaiian studies and library email lists in Hawaii and the Pacific area.
  3. Reports of progress in the projects involving digitization of Hawaiian language newspapers have been posted on the site web page, as well as this final report.
  4. Creation, and posting on web of a paper outlining the Background and Historical Significance of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa

a) The addition of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa to the site will be made known to the Clearinghouse of Image Databases and other appropriate web-based directories of historical resources as well as the Hawaii State Virtual Library.