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This project seeks to make available selected, heavily used Hawaiian language newspapers to students throughout the state of Hawaii who have access to the World Wide Web (WWW). These historical newspapers, published from the mid-nineteenth through the early twentieth centuries in Hawaii, are currently stored on microfilm. In an effort to make this information accessible in places where libraries do not hold the microfilm or are unable to provide long hours of service, selected articles pertinent to Hawaiian language and history courses and selected rolls of particularly significant Hawaiian language newspapers will be digitally scanned, indexed on a basic level, then stored on a server for access via the World Wide Web.
Heavy use of the microfilm copies have caused deterioration of the reels and degraded the images. Researchers wishing to consult this material have up to now been required to use the microfilm on site in Hamilton library. This project expands access to people who are not able to come to the library and provides access to this important resource without destroying the resource itself. This project is a pilot effort designed to identify the problems and issues related to making microfilmed Hawaiian language materials more widely available through use of digital technology. This project extends efforts of the University to provide for the preservation and access of our cultural and scholarly heritage.
This project addresses the theme of diversity by promoting the use of Hawaiian language newspapers in an electronic format through the use of the World Wide Web. Approximately eighty Hawaiian language newspapers were published in Hawai'i, from 1834 to 1948. They are primary historical materials that document Hawaiian history. These newspapers are currently stored on microfilm which was produced from newspapers that had deteriorated through the years.
Through subsequent heavy use by students and scholars of the Hawaiian language, some of the microfilm copies have also deteriorated and/or disappeared. Reduplication of these reels from master reels places the master reels at risk as well, for each time a master reel is duplicated it deteriorates a bit, too. The emerging technology of digital scanning allows us to access these important newspaper resources without destroying the resource itself. New technology also enables the enhancing of microfilmed images so that a more readable image can be produced.
This project also addresses the theme of diversity by making accessible Hawaiian language newspapers wherever there is access to the World Wide Web. Few libraries in Hawai'i or elsewhere have collections of the microfilm. Soaring enrollment in Hawaiian language courses and the development of a master's degree in Hawaiian language and literature at the University of Hawai'i at Hilo increase the need for broader access to the newspapers. The project addresses the need for Hawaiian language resource materials at all levels of education.
Complete microfilmed holdings of six newspapers were scanned in entirety. They are Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika, Ke Au Hou, Ka Manawa, Ka Lama,Ka Lei Momi, Ka Lanakila. Over 3,800 scans were made from newspaper pages.
Twenty-two series and articles selected from Hawaiian language newspapers listed above as well as others (Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Ke Alaula, Ke Au Okoa, Ka Puuhonua o na Hawaii) were printed from microfilm and prepared for scanning.
A web site (http://libweb.hawaii.edu/) was established on the server at the UH Mänoa School of Library and Information Studies. A hard drive purchased with this grant expanded the capacity of this server to enable the storage of indexing files and images in web-accessible graphic format. A sampling of images has been loaded on the web, to demonstrate different methods of displaying and accessing the images, and to illustrate the problems and challenges encountered during the scanning and processing.
The web site was demonstrated to a Hawaiian language class and to a Hawaiian Studies class.
The following activities were proposed. Each item is followed by a statement of accomplishment or progress.
We envisioned that success of the project would be evaluated by:
1) a Web survey to sample usage, comments, etc. and
2) the identification of problems and issues related to making microfilmed newspapers more widely available through the use of digital technology.
It is important to identify and document these issues and problems, so that they can be shared with others interested in utilizing this new technology. This written assessment would serve as the basis of a large-scale project. We are able to present a written assessment which includes problems encountered and written and revised procedures. This assessment is summarized in the next section.
* the total size of the images was too large and loaded too slowly to be very usable,
* inability to match the sections exactly,
* inconsistent lighting in the scans.
A Pentium computer has recently been assigned to the project by the UH Mänoa Library administration. In addition, the Library's Desktop Network Services department plans to acquire a second Pentium computer and related digitizing equipment through other sources to increase the efficiency of our project. We are searching for grant opportunities which will allow us to continue the scanning/digitizing/processing for the Web of Hawaiian language newspapers. There are currently approximately 58 Hawaiian language newspapers, in approximately 93 reels, that await this work.
|Salaries||2 Student Assistants*||$1,098.59|
|*$459.01 charged against library's 1997-98 funds for
student assistants, due to insufficient funds at end of year
|Equipment||1 external 3.5 formatted 8.6 gigabyte drive||$2,065.00|
|100 hours of rental Minolta Microdax 300||$3,120.00|
|Materials/supplies||1 ScanFix software version 2.33||$406.00|
|1 Cuneiform 2.0e OCR||$109.00|
|1 Canvas 3.5 w/CD w/ClipArt/Fonts Academ||$85.00|
|1 Adobe Photoshop 4.0 for Windows 3.1||$242.95|
|Silver microform duplicates||$136.92|
|TOTAL OPERATING COSTS||$7,263.46|
September 26, 1997
Joan Hori and Martha Chantiny, UHM Library
Sherie Gusukuma, Honolulu Community College Library
Junko Nowaki, UH Hilo Library
A Diversity and Equity grant of $7,188.00 was received by librarians at the University of Hawa'i at Mānoa, University of Hawai'i at Hilo, and Honolulu Community College to digitize selected Hawaiian language newspaper articles currently stored on microfilm, enhance them optically, and mount them on the World Wide Web (Web). A significant newspaper would be entirely scanned. This project was planned to be a pilot effort to provide electronic access to primary newspaper archives.
In November 1997, an additional amount was granted to fund Phase II to continue the cooperative effort of libraries at the University of Hawaii to provide electronic access to primary Hawaiian language archives and complete the processing of more than 3,800 images that were scanned from microfilm in Phase I, as well as to present a hands-on workshop for librarians and Hawaiian language scholars to demonstrate the process of digitizing newspaper archives for the Web.
In Phase I we identified problems and issues related to making microfilmed newspapers more widely available through the use of digital technology. A web site -- http://libweb.hawaii.edu/digicoll/newspapers.htm -- was established on the server of the UH Manoa School of Library and Information Studies. Progress in Phase I was severely limited during most of the project by our having use of only a 386 personal computer for post-scanning processing. Access to a Pentium computer was made available for Phase II.