Background and historical significance of

by Joan Hori, Hawaiian Collection Curator,
Special Collections, Hamilton Library, University of Hawaiÿi at Mänoa, 2001
produced as part of the Hawai'i Council for the Humanities funded grant "Digitization for Preservation of an Important Hawaiian Language Newspaper - Ka Nupepa Kuokoa"

Table of Contents

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Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, the Hawaiian language newspaper with the longest publication history, first appeared in 1861. Published with Christian mission support and demonstrating a haole, or European-American stance, it nevertheless had a long history of printing information about Hawaiian, or Kanaka Maoli, tradition and culture. This essay briefly relates the history, content, and social context in which Ka Nupepa Kuokoa appeared. Terms used throughout are those found in the newspapers, and used by the native people to refer to themselves, such as Kanaka Maoli, or känaka, and the term they used to refer to Caucasians, haole. The use of the ÿokina [ 1 ] and kahakö [ 2 ] is determined by the method utilized by the newspapers and the sources used as references in this essay.

Hawaiian language newspapers of the nineteenth and early twentieth century present a rich source of Kanaka Maoli history and culture to a growing audience of readers. More than 80 titles in various states of completeness and formats are currently available in Hamilton Library at the University of Hawaiÿi at Mänoa. Within these titles may be found viewpoints on religion, economics, culture, and politics of Christian missionaries; haole business and political leaders; and Kanaka Maoli scholars, leaders, and the general population. These newspapers serve as a primary source of information on issues facing Hawaiÿi in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Presenting a native view of historical events in Hawaiÿi and the world, and a Kanaka Maoli perspective on their own culture, they tell the readers of today about the concerns of a changing society during the past century.

Early Hawaiian language newspapers in Hawaiÿi

Prior to 1861 Hawaiian language newspapers in Hawaiÿi were educational vehicles of western religions. Ka Lama Hawaii and Ke Kumu Hawaiÿi were the first two newspapers published in Hawaiÿi. They were organs of the ABCFM, or American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, mainly New England Calvinist missionaries, but produced by and for their students at Lahainaluna School in Maui. Ka Nonanona and Ka Elele Hawaii were both edited by Reverend Richard Armstrong, who later became the minister of public instruction of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Ka Hae Hawaii, official newspaper of that department under Armstrong, also conveyed a Protestant slant. He Mau Hana i Hanaia, the first Roman Catholic paper appeared irregularly in 1852 and was followed by Haimanava in 1858. [ 3 ]

Non-religious Hawaiian language press

In 1861 Hawaiian language newspapers in opposition to the religious press of the missionaries appeared. Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika (started in September), edited by David Kaläkaua, was followed by Ka Nupepa Kuokoa in October. This latter newspaper was to become the longest lasting Hawaiian language newspaper, published monthly in October, November, and December of 1861, and weekly thereafter until December 29, 1927. In the course of its history it would absorb a number of rival newspapers. According to Helen Chapin the editors of Kuokoa

...published what turned out to be materials of the greatest importance to Hawaiian history....In Kuokoa are genealogies, tales of gods and goddesses, vivid descriptions of Hawaiian birds, bird catching and fishing practices, instructions on canoe building, summaries of medical practices, accounts of travel through the Islands, and how to speak the Hawaiian language correctly. In its pages, too, first appeared the of John Papa Ii and Samuel M. Kamakau, which were later gathered together respectively as Fragments of Hawaiian History (1959) and The Ruling Chiefs of Hawaii. [ 4 ]

Early English language newspapers in Hawaiÿi

The Hawaiian language newspapers were not the only early papers in Hawaiÿi. Although Ka Lama and Ke Kumu Hawaii were the first published in Hawaiÿi, English language newspapers soon followed. These early English language papers were commercial ventures, published by businessmen to promote their economic and political ideas. The Sandwich Island Gazette and Journal of Commerce (1836-39) was aimed at the foreigners living in Hawaiÿi. It was the first newspaper to contain advertising. It advocated freedom of the press, discussed the declining Kanaka Maoli population, and supported freedom of religion for Roman Catholics in Hawaiÿi. The Sandwich Island Mirror and Commercial Gazette (1839-1841) was supported by American businessmen.

Some English language papers supported Protestant Christianity. The Polynesian (1840-41, 1844-64), was published by James Jackson Jarves of Boston. From 1844 to 1860 it became the official printer of laws and notices of the Hawaiian government. The Friend (1843-1954) was begun by Reverend Samuel Chenery Damon. In contrast, the Honolulu Times (1849-1851) published by Henry L. Sheldon, originally of Rhode Island, opposed the influence of American Protestants, as did the earlier English language newspapers supported by the business community. After the Honolulu Times ceased publication, Abraham Fornander, who had written for Sheldon, published the Weekly Argus (1851-53). Fornander's objective was to provide in the Weekly Argus a voice against the government's Polynesian. From 1853 to 1855 it was published as the New Era and Weekly Argus. [ 5 ]

In 1856 Henry Whitney began the Pacific Commercial Advertiser (1856-), which was renamed the Honolulu Advertiser in 1902. In 1882 Whitney also started the Daily Bulletin (1882-) which was later renamed the Honolulu Star-Bulletin. In 1861, while he continued to publish the Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Whitney commenced publication of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, with three monthly issues in October, November, and December of 1861, then weekly issues for the next 65 years.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa has been described as "the first independent Hawaiian newspaper", in the sense that it was independent of American Protestants, French Catholics and the government of the Hawaiian kingdom.[ 6 ] However, Rubellite Johnson considers Ka Nupepa Kuokoa to be the successor to Ka Hae Hawaii, which had succeeded Ka Elele Hawaii as the official paper of the Office of Public Instruction.[ 7 ] She refers to an announcement by the editor of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa in October 1861, that the Kuokoa would continue where Ka Hae Hawaii had stopped. Noenoe Silva classifies the Kuokoa as "establishment," as opposed to Ka Hoku o Ka Pakipika, which she describes as "resistance," and Ka Hae Hawaii (1856-61) as "government." [ 8 ] She points out that Kuokoa was owned and run by Henry Whitney, son of missionaries, and that his paper was endorsed by the Hawaiian Evangelical Association. She writes, "Kuokoa was popular because of its rich content, and in spite of Whitney's attitude of superiority over the Kanaka Maoli." [ 9 ] John Reinecke writes, "The Kuokoa (1861 to 1927) in particular was for the long while a journal of opinion as well as information and afforded an outlet for the literary and didactic ambitions of Hawaiians." [ 10 ]

Publisher Henry Whitney

Henry Martyn Whitney (1824-1904), son of Samuel and Mercy Whitney of the Pioneer Company of ABCFM missionaries, was born on Kauaÿi, and educated in Rochester, New York. He worked on the American newspaper New York Commercial Advertiser and for the publisher Harper and Brothers, then returned to Hawaiÿi where he served as head printer at the Hawaiÿi government printing plant and business manager of the English-language newspaper, The Polynesian.

In July 1856 Whitney began his own English-language newspaper, the Pacific Commercial Advertiser (PCA). He described the PCA as a free press, independent of the government.[ 11 ] From July till September 1856 the last page of the PCA was printed in the Hawaiian language and called Ka Hoku Loa o Hawaii.

Whitney's influence was wide-ranging. He is described by Johnson as a who was a true and experienced journalist rather than a mission or government educator. What he achieved in 1856 was two-fold: the liberation of the press from the mission and the government, making journalism a commercial enterprise independent of the church and the state, and the liberation of the Hawaiian reader (or writer). [ 12 ]

She concludes that Whitney elevated the position of the Hawaiian-reading audience the same level as the English-reading audience by printing the same news for both groups. "He opened a bilingual dialogue through Ka Hoku Loa o Hawaii...Whitney approached the Hawaiian audience ...with secular, rather than religious or academic, appeal. [ 13 ] An opposite opinion, quoted by Silva, was that of J.H. Känepuÿu, one of the authors of the Hawaiian language newspaper Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika. He wrote that the subscription price for readers of both languages was the same, $6 per year, even though the English readers got three-fourths of the information. [ 14 ]

Whitney's objectives in publishing Ka Nupepa Kuokoa

In the first issue, Whitney published the following objectives for the paper:

View an image of Whitney's published objectives.

Contents of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa

Ka Nupepa Kuÿokoÿa; a Chronicle of Entries October, 1861-September, 1862, edited by Rubellite Johnson contains a listing of one year's publication history of this paper. She presents a page by page annotated list of the contents of each issue published during the period covered. Johnson notes that the newspaper demonstrated a similar format in each issue. She classifies articles in Ka Nupepa Kuokoa into several categories.

The first section, called Kela Mea Keia Mea o ka Aina e Mai, later titled Na Mea Hou no na Aina e Mai, consisted of foreign news, which took two weeks to arrive in Hawaiÿi, and in the first year consisted of news of the American Civil War. The second section, titled Kela Mea Keia Mea o Hawaii Nei, later titled Na Mea o Hawaii Nei, presented news of Hawaiÿi, such as the marriage of Lydia Kamakaeha Liliÿuokalani to John Owen Dominis; the death of Prince Albert, son of King Kamehameha V and Queen Emma; and the retirement of John Papa ÿIÿi from public office. The third category identified by Johnson were letters to the editor, and the fourth category consisted of olelo hoolaha, or announcements and advertisements. Also featured in each issue were serialized literature, both European tales and traditional Kanaka Maoli stories, which according to Johnson came from Moolelo Hawaii, the manuscripts written by Lahainaluna students. Poetry in the form of mele inoa (name songs) and kanikau (dirges) were often published, as were fillers of Christian or Kanaka Maoli maxims and jokes; announcements of births, marriages and deaths; and shipping lists.[ 16 ]

Johnson's 1976 Kukini ÿAhaÿilono, a compilation of articles published in Hawaiian language newspapers that were selected and translated by her Hawaiian language students, includes articles of history and culture and letters of political debates, and demonstrates the variety of information published in the newspapers. Included in this volume are sample articles from issues of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa 1861-1873. From the October 24, 1861 issue are transcribed and translated "He Mele No Ka Nupepa Kuokoa," (A Song for the Newspaper Kuokoa), by G. W. Kahiolo of Kalihi; "Na Luina Pukiki Ma Hawaii Nei," (Portuguese Sailors in Hawaii); "I Ke Aupuni a Me Ka Moi," (To The Government And The King), by S. D. Keolanui, who requests that the government welcome the independent newspapers. From the November 7, 1861 issue is "No Ka Hoku Loa Mai," (About the Morning Star), by Puninupepa, questioning why the people of Maui and Molokaÿi reject Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika. From the November 11, 1861 issue is "He Manao Hooakaka," (An Explanation), by Waianuenue, which is a letter to Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika in response to a letter in the Hoku about Waianuenue's earlier letter in the Kuokoa. Letters back and forth between Kuokoa and Ka Hoku arguing the relevance of each of the two papers to the Kanaka Maoli readers continued through the publication life of Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika, until 1863.[ 17 ]

This volume also contains from the January 11, 1862 issue "No Loko Mai O Ka Olelo Geremania; Ka Moo Alii," (From the German Language; The Frog Prince). Johnson notes that in its initial year of publication, a number of European folktales were published in Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, and she lists 14 that were published in this year.[ 18 ]

Brief chronology of events in Hawaiÿi during publication history of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, 1861-1927

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa's influence can be seen in the moÿolelo, or historical stories, chants, and articles on native culture, published at a time of diminishing knowledge of their own culture among the Kanaka Maoli. Today these materials provide a wealth of information to the reader of the Hawaiian language. In addition, in its pages can be read news articles, editorials, and letters to the editors, which report and comment on the events of the day. Birth, marriage, and death notices provide genealogical information. Its lengthy publication history enables the modern reader to learn about how Kanaka Maoli who lived during the period of 1861 to 1927 thought and felt about important events of the day. The following is a brief historical chronology of an important time in Hawaiÿi, which can help to identify time periods in the newspaper files to scan for relevant articles.

Rivalry between Kuokoa and Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika

Beginning with the earliest issues of the Kuokoa and Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika, intense and eloquent debates were conducted through editorials and letters to the editors. In the October 4, 1862 issue of the Kuokoa, for instance, is an article titled "He Make Kupanaha," (A Strange Death), regarding the death of its rival, Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika, because the people had chosen the Kuokoa over Ka Hoku. Then on October 11, 1862 appeared a letter by R. Saderoka of Kauaÿi, reminding readers that subscribers of Ka Hoku were still owed issues of the paper.

As described by Silva, rivalry between the two papers began when Henry Whitney tried to control the content of Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika by first raising his quoted prices for printing that paper at the government printing press, which he headed. When he was unable to take control, Whitney began Ka Nupepa Kuokoa in opposition to the Hoku. Silva further describes the situation in terms of missionary desire to control the Hoku, and refers to an editorial in it charging that the objection of the Calvinist community to the Hoku was that Kanaka Maoli controlled its content. "It would, therefore, be much more to the liking of the missionary community that Whitney control any new so-called independent newspaper, especially since Whitney was one of their own; he was the son of missionaries of the 'Pioneer Company' (the first company of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions)".[ 19 ] She then quotes from Abraham Fornander, editor of an English language newspaper, The Polynesian:

It is true that a foreign publisher...has offered to issue a journal in the Hawaiian language to supply the intellectual wants of the native people, and that his offer has been most warmly seconded and espoused by the Missionaries, but...the natives repudiate it...because it is calculated to drive their own paper out of the field, and because they apprehend that is will not be a true reflex of their own opinions and thoughts.[ 20 ]

Editors of Kuokoa

Henry Whitney's far-reaching influence as publisher of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa is described by Helen Chapin as being due to his practice of "hiring capable Hawaiian editors, such as Joseph Kawainui, S.K. Mahoe, and J.M. Poepoe, who published what turned out to be materials of the greatest importance to Hawaiian history."[ 21 ]

In 1861 the editor of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa was L. H. Gulick. He announced in the paper that Kuokoa would continue where Ka Hae Hawaii had left off, in its support of the missionary position. In 1870 Gulick was joined by co-editor Joseph Kawainui. Then in 1871 Henry Whitney took over as editor until 1873, when Joseph Kawainui became co-editor again. The following list was compiled by Esther Mookini, and is taken from her work The Hawaiian Newspapers. [ 22 ] She lists editors and notes other papers absorbed by Kuokoa, as well as the accompanying name changes.

In the following section is reported the scanty information available on the various editors of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. Standard sources of information for biographical information about people in Hawaiÿi were searched. Results were mixed, for most the editors with haole names were listed in these publications, but the editors with Hawaiian names were not listed. Two exceptions are Simeon Nawaa (co-editor 1904-05 and 1907), and Solomon Hanohano, who was a co-editor with D. A-i in 1907, with Charles Crane in 1908-18, and the Kuokoa's last editor 1918-27.[ 23 ]

Oral histories and Kuokoa

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa played a vital role in the lives of its Kanaka Maoli readers through the years. One person living in 20th century Hawaiÿi who vividly remembered the Kuokoa is one of its editors, Simeon K. Nawaa. In 1955, at the age of 83 he recalled his days as a 12 years-old newspaper boy delivering the Kuokoa, Elele Poakolu, and Ko Hawaii Pae Aina.

With other boys young Simeon waited for his papers at the press building on the site of the present King theater. As they came off the press he helped fold them by hand, then stuffed the papers in leather saddlebags.
Each week he carried over 500 papers, requiring the use of two horses to cover the long route. If he received his papers at noon he would be finished by 9 at night.
There were many streams to be forded. At crossings he avoided wet papers by balancing the saddle bags on his head.[ 27]

Mrs. Lilian Nowelo Napoleon of Molokaÿi, speaking to Larry Kimura on his Hawaiian language radio program Ka Leo o Hawaii, recalled that she learned to read Hawaiian from the Kuokoa while reading to her grandparents:

...koÿu aÿo ÿana ka heluhelu hawaiÿi ma ka nüpepa küÿokoÿa...ÿale vau hoÿomaopopo ÿo vai la..ka mea ke ola nei..hoÿomäpopo këlä nüpepa..nüpepa küÿokoÿa

Her grandfather worked for the Kuokoa, writing news of Molokaÿi and sending it to editor Hanohano in Honolulu:

...nä mea nui, mea hou o ka ÿäina o molokai...näna e käkau..pau..hoÿouna ÿo ia i këia keÿena i honolulu nei...[ 28 ]

In another interview on the Ka Leo Hawaii program, Mrs. Esther Kekela Kakalia Westmoreland told Larry that her maternal grandfather Jonathan Nakilä worked for the Kuokoa with her uncle Kolomona Hanohano. And Mrs. Annie Kini, of Oÿahu recalled that her uncle Galston Kiliona Poepoe worked for Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. [ 29 ]

Kamakau's Place in Ka Nupepa Kuokoa

Samuel Manaiakalani Kamakau is listed often among the authors published in Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. According to Thomas G. Thrum, Kamakau was born at Mokuleia, Waialua, Oÿahu, October 29, 1815. In 1833 at age 17 he became a student at Lahainaluna Seminary, and remained there for 7 years, as pupil and teacher's assistant. In 1841 he helped to found the Hawaiian Historical Society at Lahainaluna at the teachers' request for historical information on the origins of the Hawaiian people. He later served as principal of a school at Kaupipa, Maui, then as an official in Nawaieha. From July 1855 to November 1856 he was a district judge of Wailuku, but was removed from office due to "malfeasance in office."[ 30 ] In 1848 until 1850 he was a member of the Board of Commissioners to Quiet Land Titles, a member of the Legislature of 1851 representing the district of Hana and thereafter served numerous times in the Legislature until his death in 1876. He moved to Oÿahu after 1862. According to Thrum, Kamakau's career in journalism began in June 1865, when the Kuokoa began to publish a series of his articles on tradition and legend connected with different places. Thrum comments:

Kamakau was a voluminous writer, and must have had a rare acquisitive talent and studious dispositon [sic], with the added blessing of a remarkable memory. And it is to his writings we are indebted for much data relating to himself, brought out in newspaper communications and controversies, for he was self-confident to a fault bordering on conceit that brooked no criticism...[ 31 ]

Thrum cites S.N. Haleole's defense in the June 1, 1865 Kuokoa defending Kamakau's historic writings from an attack published in the May 29, 1865 Au Okoa. Haleole stated that Kamakau began his researches in 1836 and continued until 1848. Thrum further writes "...these and subsequent years of research made Kamakau a veritable storehouse of Hawaiian history and folk-lore, though at times of doubtful character."[ 32 ]

In 1866 the Kuokoa began publishing Kamakau's history of Kamehameha I, which he continued through the death of Kamehameha III in October 14, 1868. He also began a new series in this issue, treating antiquities and traditions of Hawaiÿi. This latter series ended in January 9, 1869 in the Kuokoa, but continued in a rival newspaper, Au Okoa, under the title of "Ka Moolelo Hawaii," until February 2, 1871. Thrum refers to the many "legends and biographies of noted aliis are embodied in these series, as also ancient genealogies." Appendix 4 is a list of articles in Kamakau's two series published in Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, with dates of publication, located by Malcolm Naea Chun [ 33 ], and Appendix 5 is a list of additional articles presented to the Hawaiÿi Historical Society at their annual meeting January 1918. [ 34 ]

Locating articles in Ka Nupepa Kuokoa

The two publications by Rubellite Johnson and her Hawaiian language students are important sources of information on the partial contents of the Kuokoa. The first is Ka Nupepa Kuÿokoÿa: A Chronicle of Entries October, 1861-September, 1862, published in 1975. Johnson and her students translated and indexed the first year of this paper's publication history. It is a page by page; column by column listing of the articles published in each issue, with the author's name, the title in Hawaiian, the title translated into English, and abstracts for selected articles. Johnson writes:

The single impression which this list first creates is the sheer magnitude of Hawaiian journalistic production, roughly over one hundred newspapers, and the long duration of this activity for a little over a century. It also dispels a notion entertained by many of us that the Hawaiians "lost" their culture. The newspapers demonstrate otherwise, that, liberated by the knowledge of writing and trained in the operation of the printing press, the Hawaiians, with the same characteristic anxiety over the loss of their traditions, spurred on by the successes of Lahainaluna, wrote with a passionate determination to stall or to circumvent that possibility so long as they were able to find pen and paper.[ 34 ]

In 1976 Johnson and her Hawaiian language students' work of compiling and translating selected articles from Hawaiian language newspapers, appeared in Kukini ÿAhaÿilono [Carry on The News]: Over a Century Of Native Hawaiian Life and Thought From The Hawaiian Language Newspapers of 1834 to 1948 Published In Honor Of The Bicentennial. Articles from the Kuokoa during the years 1861-864, 1868, 1872-1876 are transcribed and translated. These articles demonstrate the variety of information published in the Kuokoa and other Hawaiian language newspapers. There are articles commenting on political events, such as "Ka Hoalii Ana Ia Ka Mea Kiekie Ke Alii W. C. Lunalilo I Moi," (The Crowning of the High Chief, W. C. Lunalilo as King," (January 11, 1873); "Lanakila ka Moi a na Makaainana; Ke Anaina nui 12,000...," (The King and the People Win; A Throng of 12,000...," (January 11, 1873), kanikau (dirges), such as "He Kanikau No Ka Moi ÿIolani Kamehameha IV!" (A Lament for King Kamehameha IV!), by Queen Emma (January 2, 1864), and mele (songs), and articles of interest, such as "No Na Inoa," (Pertaining to Names), on the law of 1860 to regulate names (June 13, 1863).

Bishop Museum Indexes

At present a detailed published index to Ka Nupepa Kuokoa in its entirety is not available for consultation. The resulting difficulty in locating articles on specific topics may be alleviated by two incomplete but useful indexes by the Bishop Museum Library and also available at the University of Hawaiÿi at Mänoa Library. Index to Hawaiian Ethnological Notes, known as HEN, is an index on microfiche. It was reproduced from a card file index of ethnological information published in Hawaiian language newspapers and other sources, some of which were translated by Mary Kawena Pukuÿi. In this index it is possible to search topics, such as "birds-bird catching, calendars, canoes & canoe building, legends, plants, prayers, tattooing, warfare," etc. Also in this index are references by newspaper titles, so that it is possible to check the microfiche for Kuokoa, and locate some articles, although these references are sparse in number. In addition, there are references to authors. See appendix 2 for a list of the subject headings and titles of newspapers that are partially indexed. The references found in this index are to Hawaiian language newspapers such as Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, as well as notes and translations available at the Bishop Museum Library.

A second index, also based on a card index at the Bishop Museum Library, is Bishop Museum Hawaiian Language Newspaper Index, compiled by the Bishop Museum Library staff. Currently a paper copy and a database are available at the Bishop Museum Library and the Hawaiian Collection, Hamilton Library, University of Hawaiÿi at Mänoa. Articles in a number of Hawaiian language newspapers are listed, by topics such as "awa, land division, aliis, birds, hulas, language," etc. See appendix 3 for a partial list of articles in the Kuokoa.

Series in Kuokoa located by Hawaiian language students and teachers

Students and teachers of the Hawaiian language have found in Ka Nupepa Kuokoa many serialized moÿolelo, or historical stories, to study and publish. Among the most recent is Thomas K. Maunupau's Huakai Makaikai a Kaupö, Maui (A Visit to Kaupö, Maui), published in Ka Nupepa Kuokoa June 1, 1922-March 15, 1923.[ 35 ] Another recent publication is Samuel Kamakau's Ke Kumu Aupuni: Ka Moÿolelo Hawaiÿi no Kamehameha ka Naÿi Aupuni a me Käna Aupuni i Hoÿokumu Ai, also called Moolelo Hawaii no Kamehameha, serialized in the Kuokoa and Ke Au Okoa from October 20, 1866 to October 13, 1869. [ 36 ] Other serialized stories are listed below in detail, because of the lack of a complete index it is difficult to pinpoint specific articles in Ka Nupepa Kuokoa in a systematic manner.

Shorter stories and articles have also been republished as Hawaiian language readers:[ 37 ]

Additional articles on Hawaiian culture and biography have been located and reproduced for instructional use:


The long history of Ka Nupepa Kuokoa and its practice of publishing articles of interest to its Kanaka Maoli readers have left a rich legacy for all students of the history and culture of Hawaiÿi. Genealogy and politics, poetry and geography, moral teachings and economics, all affected the daily lives of känaka and haole. Thrum's Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1904 notes:

Persons interested in the study of the usages, customs and beliefs of Hawaiians will find much instructive material thereon from their own writings in the native papers prior to 1870, notably in the scarce volumes of the Kuokoa.[ 38 ]

Through Ka Nupepa Kuokoa and other Hawaiian language newspapers of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries readers in the twenty-first century are able to see Hawaiÿi through the eyes of the Kanaka Maoli who were experiencing a swiftly changing world in which their culture appeared to be disappearing. Research utilizing this first-hand information will undoubtedly transform Hawaiian history as it is presented to current and future researchers and readers.


"Bishop Museum Hawaiian Language Newspaper Index." Honolulu: Bishop Museum Library, 19--. [Paper copy and database available at Hawaiian Collection, Hamilton Library, University of Hawaiÿi Library.]

Chapin, Helen. "Newspapers of Hawaiÿi 1834 to 1903: From He Liona to the Pacific Cable," Hawaiian Journal of History 18 (1984): 47-86.

Chapin, Helen. Shaping History: The Role of Newspapers in Hawaiÿi. Honolulu: University of Hawaiÿi Press, 1996.

Chun, Malcolm Naea. Nä Kukui Pio ÿOle; The Inextinguishable Torches: The Biographies of Three Early Native Hawaiian Scholars Davida Malo, S.N. Haleÿole and S.M. Kamakau. Honolulu: First People's Productions, 1993.

Day, A. Grove. History Makers of Hawaii: a Biographical Dictionary. Honolulu: Mutual, 1984.

Hawaii Newspaper Agency Clippings Morgue. Persons. [Hamilton Library, University of Hawaiÿi at Mänoa, microfiche D98050.]

Hawaiian Historical Society web site ["Chronology"]

"Index to Hawaiian Ethnological Notes." Honolulu: Bishop Museum Library, 19--. [Also known as "HEN."

Johnson, Rubellite Kawena, ed. Ka Nupepa Kuÿokoÿa; a Chronicle of Entries October, 1861-September, 1862. Honolulu: Topgallant, 1975.

Johnson, Rubellite Kinney, ed. Kukini ÿAhaÿilono [Carry On The News] Over a Century of Native Hawaiian Life and Thought From The Hawaiian Language Newspapers of 1834 to 1948 Published in Honor of the Bicentennial. Honolulu: Topgallant, 1976.

Kimura, Larry. Ka Leo o Hawaii Tapes. Honolulu. [Ka Leo Hawaii weekly Hawaiian language radio programs broadcast on KCCN. Tapes held by Language Telecommunications, Resource and Learning Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa.]

Moÿokini, Esther. The Hawaiian Newspapers. Honolulu: Topgallant, 1974.

Morris, Nancy. Hawaii. Oxford, England; Santa Barbara, Calif.: Clio Press, 1992.

Reinecke, John E. Language and Dialect in Hawaii; a Sociolinguistic History to 1935. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1969.

Silva, Noenoe. "Ke Küÿë Küpaÿa Loa Nei Mäkou: Kanaka Maoli Resistance to Colonization," Ph D. dissertation, University of Hawaiÿi at Mänoa, 1999.

Thrum, Thomas G. "Brief Sketch of the Life and Labors of S.M. Kamakau, Hawaiian Historian," Hawaiian Historical Society Annual Report for 1917. 1918.

Thrum, Thomas G., ed. Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1904. Honolulu, 1903.


Back to text 1 - A single, open quote that appears before vowels and indicates a glottal stop, a clean break between vowel sounds.
Back to text 2 - A macron, a short, horizontal line that indicates an increased duration for the sound of the vowel over which it appears.
Back to text 3 - Esther Mookini's The Hawaiian Newspapers presents a more detailed history of Hawaiian language newspapers, a list of Hawaiian language newspapers published every year from 1834 to 1948, and a list of principal editors of the papers. Honolulu: Topgallant, 1974.
Back to text 4 - Helen Chapin, Shaping History: The Role of Newspapers in Hawaiÿi. Honolulu: University of Hawaiÿi Press, 1996, 56-57.
Back to text 5 - See Chapin, 19-52 for a discussion of early English language newspapers, their publishers, and positions.
Back to text 6 - Mookini, vi.
Back to text 7 - Rubellite Kawena Johnson, ed. Ka Nupepa Kuÿokoÿa; A Chronicle of Entries October, 1861 - September, 1862. Honolulu: Topgallant, 1975, xii-xiii.
Back to text 8 - Noenoe Silva, Ke Küÿë Küpaÿa Loa Nei Mäkou: Kanaka Maoli Resistance to Colonization. Ph D. dissertation, University of Hawaiÿi at Mänoa, 1999, 25.
Back to text 9 - Silva, 58.
Back to text 10 - John Reinecke, Language and Dialect in Hawaii; a Sociolinguistic History to 1935. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1969, 30.
Back to text 11 - Mookini, vi.
Back to text 12 - Rubellite Kinney Johnson, ed. Kukini ÿAhaÿilono [Carry On The News] Over a Century of Native Hawaiian Life and Thought From The Hawaiian Language Newspapers of 1834 to 1948... Honolulu: Topgallant, 1976, 58.
Back to text 13 - Johnson, 1976, 58.
Back to text 14 - Silva, 25.
Back to text 15 - Silva, 58-59 has included and translated parts of the objectives printed in Ka Hoku Loa by Whitney. She points out that Whitney used the word kanaka to refer to Hawaiians, since foreigners in Hawaiÿi required no such education. Silva also presents "Text of the Objectives of Nupepa Kuokoa, as published therein, October 1861", 213.
Back to text 16 - Johnson, 1975, xiv-xvi.
Back to text 17 - Johnson, 1976, 187-199.
Back to text 18 - Johnson, 1976, 204-205.
Back to text 19 - Silva, 35-36.
Back to text 20 - Silva, 37-38, from Polynesian, 1861, 23 Nov.
Back to text 21 - Chapin, 56-57.
Back to text 22 - Mookini, 36.
Back to text 23 - The sources checked were in English; a search through Ka Nupepa Kuokoa may yield information about its editors.
Back to text 24 - Helen Chapin, "Newspapers of Hawaiÿi 1834 to 1903: From 'He Liona' to the Pacific Cable," Hawaiian Journal of History 18 (1984), 53.
Back to text 25 - Reverend Abraham K. Akaka, quoted in Nawaa's obituary, Hawaii Newspaper Agency Clippings Morgue. Persons. December 3, 1961 [Available in Hamilton Library, Microfiche D98050.] It is often difficult to determine the newspaper in which the article or letter was published. The morgue also contains Hanohano's letters to the editor of the Star-Bulletin, articles on Kanaka Maoli culture and language, and a letter greeting Governor Samuel Wilder King in Hawaiian, from the Star-Bulletin[?].
Back to text 26 - Hawaii Newspaper Agency Clippings Morgue. Persons. November 1, 194[1]? [unable to determine title of newspaper].
Back to text 27 - Hawaii Newspaper Agency Clippings Morgue. Persons. October 5, 1955 [unable to determine in which of the two Honolulu papers the article was published].
Back to text 28 - Lilian Nowelo Napoleon, Ka Leo o Hawaii interview with Larry Kimura, January 1, 1981, Tape HV24:273.
Back to text 29 - Esther Kekela Kakalia Westmoreland, Ka Leo o Hawaii interview with Larry Kimura, September 23, 1984. Tape HV24.345. Annie Kini, Ka Leo o Hawaii interview with Larry Kimura, October 21, 1984. Tape HV24:349.
Back to text 30 - Thomas G. Thrum, "Brief Sketch of the Life and Labors of S.M. Kamakau, Hawaiian Historian," Hawaiian Historical Society Annual Report for 1917, 1918, 44.
Back to text 31 - Thrum, 45.
Back to text 32 - Thrum, 45.
Back to text 33 - Malcolm Naea Chun, Nä Kukui Pio ÿOle; The Inextinguishable Torches: The Biographies of Three Early Native Hawaiian Scholars Davida Malo, S.N. Haleÿole and S.M. Kamakau. Honolulu: First People's Productions, 1993, 25-26.
Back to text 34 - Thrum, 53-61.
Back to text 35 - Johnson, 1975, x.
Back to text 36 - Naomi Noelaniokoÿolau Clarke Losch editor, Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1998.
Back to text 37 - Puakea Nogelmeier editor, Honolulu: ÿAhahui ÿÖlelo Hawaiÿi, 1996.
Back to text 38 - Published by Hale Kuamoÿo, Kikowaena ÿÖlelo Hawaiÿi, Kulanui o Hawaiÿi ma Hilo, 1990-94.
Back to text 39 - Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1904. Honolulu, 1903.

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