preservation logofiber frame

Disaster Recovery
Disaster Recovery Supplies
Collection Disaster Response Procedures


DRYING PROCEDURES

BOOKS

FRAMED/MATTED ITEMS

MICROFICHE

MICROFILM

MOTION PICTURE FILM

PAPER
  ART ON PAPER

   DOCUMENTS ...

  MAPS/ARCHITECTURAL
  DRAWINGS

PHOTOGRAPHS & SLIDES

RECORDINGS:
   AUDIO TAPES

   VIDEO TAPES

   RECORD ALBUMS

SCRAPBOOKS

 

 

 

 
Contact:

Preservation Department
University of Hawai'i
Hamilton Library
2550 McCarthy Mall, 5th. Fl.
Honolulu, Hawai'i 96822
(808) 956-9120
preserve@hawaii.edu

 

Recovery

INTRODUCTION

It is essential to have a disaster preparedness plan in place for your institution. Staff should be familiar with the plan and trained in disaster recovery procedures. This Web site is designed to aid in training and preparation for disaster response.

In Hawai`i: It is even more essential to be well prepared for disaster response in Hawai'i. Our semi-tropical environment requires immediate response to prevent mold growth. Having adequate supplies on hand and trained staff will make the difference in recovering valuable collections. It is essential to be familiar with the appropriate recovery techniques for each type of material in your collection.

DOCUMENT EVERYTHING

Make photo or video documentation of disaster and recovery process.

DRYING PROCEDURES

Air-Drying

Air drying is the most common method of dealing with wet books and archival materials. It can be used to treat one item or many, but is most suitable for small numbers of damp or slightly wet books and documents. Air-drying is labor intensive, and requires a great deal of space.

In Hawai`i: It is important to have a clean work area with stable temperature and relative humidity (70 degrees F. and 60% rh, lower is better!). Dehumidifiers can help decrease humidity, and fans are essential to facilitate drying and to discourage mold growth.

Freezing

Freezing stabilizes water-damaged materials and buys time. Freezing materials is extremely important in Hawai`i to prevent mold growth. Over time damp and partially wet materilas in a freezer will dry as the moisture changes directly from ice to vapor. However, since some matrials can be damaged by freezing them, it is important to be familiar with recommended recovery procedures for specific types of materials.

In Hawai`i: Identify commercially-available freezing facilities. Freezer should reach low temperature within six hours. Both University of Hawai`i at Manoa and Brigham Young University Library at Laie have special Wei-To freezers for drying wet books and papers.

Top Of The Page

 

BOOKS

Disaster Recovery Priority Actions:

    • Water damage to materials may be irreversible. The treatment of items of high monetary, historic or sentimental value should be referred to a conservator.
    • Freeze or dry within 24 hours.
    • Coated paper must not be allowed to air dry in a clump or it will permanently block together. If slightly damp and the pages are separable, air dry interleaved page before items have an opportunity to dry. If saturated, coated paper must be frozen as soon as possible for subsequent freeze-drying.

Handling Precautions:

    • Do not move items until a place has been prepared to receive them.
    • Do not open or close books or separate covers.
    • Do not stack books in piles or on the floor.
    • Wet books are very fragile and must be handled carefully.
    • Oversized books need to be fully supported, it may only be possible to move one at a time.

Equipment and Tools Needed:

    • bookends/bricks
    • boxes: milk crates or Rescubes
    • clothesline and clothespins
    • dehumidifiers
    • extension cords
    • fans
    • scissors
    • sponges
    • trays (large plastic or enamel photo trays)
    • garbage cans (lined with plastic) with hoses for running water

Supplies Needed:

    • bags — small sandwich size
    • blotting paper
    • freezer or waxed paper
    • newsprint (un-inked sheets or rolls)
    • paper towels
    • pens waterproof
    • reemay (polyester spunbond fabric)
    • silicon release paper
    • tyvek ties

Preparation For Drying:

    • Closed books that are muddy should be rinsed before freezing by dunking in water filled garbage cans. Line garbage cans with plastic bags, insert hoses for running water. Place cans in a row and dunk closed books in clean water.
    • If air drying is not possible, books should be frozen within 24 hours. Separate with freezer paper or wax paper, pack spine down in milk crates, plastic boxes or cardboard boxes lined with plastic sheeting. Put only one layer of books into a box.
    • If books are to be sent to freezer number the boxes and record their contents. Label milk cartons or rescubess with tyvek tags, mark cardboard boxes directly with waterproof pen. Record separately: catalog range of records, media priority (i.e. coated paper); condition of contents: wet/partially wet/damp; and destination (i.e. freezer, freeze drying or air drying)
    • Remove plastic covers from pamphlets (Retain barcode, call no.)
    • Coated Paper requires that each and every page be interleaved with a non-stick material such as silicone release paper, Reemay or wax paper. If the leaves cannot be separated without further damage, the book cannot be air dried successfully and must be prepared for freeze drying.

Drying Procedure — Air Drying:

    • Air Drying is suitable for small quantities of books (less than 100 volumes) that are not thoroughly soaked. Requires space in an area away from the disaster to spread the books out. Books are stood upright and gently fanned open to dry. Keep the air moving at all times using fans directed away from the drying volumes. Periodically turn the book from head to tail. Use dehumidifiers as needed to maintain humidity at or below 50% RH.
    • Drain wet books, by stand the book on its head on absorbent paper, open covers for support but not the pages. When pages begin to dry and separate on their own interleave them.
    • Interleaving: prepare sheets of reemay, paper towels, newsprint or blotter paper slightly larger than the pages.
    • Interleaving: begin at back of book, place interleaving at intervals throughout the book, no more than one third the thickness of the volume, so the binding won’t be strained. Sheets should project above the head and fore edge of the book. Separate covers from text block with blotter paper.
    • Change as they become wet, every 2 to 3 hrs: place in different places in the book, and turn book on its tail. Recycle interleaving paper.
    • When books are dry but still cool to the touch, to minimize distortion, close book and lay flat on table, gently form into normal shape place at edge of table with a light weight on top.
    • Oversewn volumes will take longer to dry, holding moisture along the spine.
    • Oversize volumes must lay flat and should be turned when the blotter is changed. Pages should be interleaved with sheets of newsprint, paper towels or blotting paper that is slightly larger than the book leaf and changed as it becomes saturated.
    • Pamphlets with single signatures and small books can be placed over a clothesline for drying. If pamphlet binding is removed, cut off barcode, and call number and place it in small bag to be clipped next to the book on the line.
    • If there is no other option books with coated paper can be air dryed. Every page needs to be interleaved with reemay to prevent sticking. Stand book on head and fan pages.

Drying Procedure — Freezing:

    • For large quantities of books that are very wet pack and ship to freezing facility. This will buy time, and allow you to set up treatment for the books, either by removing them for air drying or sending them for freeze drying.
    • To pack books for freezing:
    • Prepare packing materials (cutting freezing paper, assembling boxes)
    • If there is time, sort books: coated paper, wet/partially wet/damp
    • Pack damaged materials beginning with items on the floor and the wettest books, then books at the ends of shelves.
    • Lay a sheet of freezer paper or waxed paper around the cover, and pack spine down in box. Put only one layer to a box.
    • Oversize volumes are also wrapped in freezer paper and packed flat in boxes or trays 2-3 books deep.
    • Freeze Drying is suitable for treating books. Wet coated paper can only be successfully dried by this method. Pack as described above and ship to drying facility. Pack carefully, as volumes packed with distortions will retain that distortion permanently after freeze drying.

Top Of The Page

 

FRAMED OR MATTED ITEMS

Disaster Recovery Priority Actions:

    • Water damage to materials may be irreversible. The treatment of items of high monetary, historic or sentimental value should be referred to a conservator.
    • Framed and matted items must be disassembled prior to air drying or freezing.
    • Wet paper must be frozen or air-dried within 24 hours.

Handling Precautions:

    • Do not move items until a place has been prepared to receive them.
    • Caution must be exercised so as to not puncture or tear the wet paper artifact in the process of removing the frame, glass/Plexiglas and mounting materials.

Equipment and Tools Needed:

    • dehumidifier
    • extension cords
    • fans
    • Plexiglas or masonite sheets
    • pliers, screw driver, tin snips
    • scissors
    • trays

Supplies Needed:

    • bubble pack
    • sponges
    • blotter paper
    • masking tape
    • mylar
    • freezer or waxed paper
    • reemay (polyester spunbound fabric)
    • newsprint(un-inked sheets or rolls)

Preparation For Drying:

    • Place frame face down on a smooth, flat surface covered with blotter paper or plastic bubble pack. Carefully remove dust seal and hardware (place these metal pieces in a container so that they do not come in contact with the wet paper and inadvertently cause damage).
    • Check if the paper object is adhered to frame by gently pushing up on the glass to see that the assemblage will release without resistance. Place a piece of board (mat board, masonite or Plexiglas) over the back of the frame with all contents still in place. Using two hands, invert frame assemblage so that the glass and image are facing up. Lift off the frame then lift off the glass.
    • When the paper is in direct contact with the glass, carefully remove them together and lay face down on a flat surface. Consult a Conservator if the paper is sticking to the glass.
    • If the glass is broken, the pieces may be held together with masking tape applied lightly over the breaks. The frame may then be laid face down and the paper removed from the back. If pieces of glass have dropped behind the remaining glass, hold the frame in a vertical position to remove the mat and/or paper.
    • To remove the item from its mat, place the image facing up. Lift window mat board carefully and detach paper object from back mat by carefully cutting hinges. If the object is attached firmly and directly to mat or backing board, do not attempt to remove.
    • Label frames and move to another area.
    • Artists sometimes incorporate secondary supports with original artwork that has important information (signature, collector’s stamp, or seal). Save if possible.

Drying Procedure:

SEE recommendations for PAPER; PHOTOGRAPHS

Top Of The Page

 

MICROFICHE

Disaster Recovery Priority Actions:

    • Dry or freeze within 48 hours.
    • Microfiche has been successfully freeze dried, though freeze-drying of photographic materials is not widely recommended. If dealing with large quantities of fiche this option should be investigated.
    • Microfiche that show signs of previous bacterial growth should also be frozen immediately if they cannot be air-dried.

Handling Precautions:

    • Do not move items until a place has been prepared to receive them. If the fiche cannot be air dried immediately keep them wet inside a container lined with garbage bags until they can be frozen.

Equipment and tools Needed:

    • clothes line
    • dehumidifier
    • fans
    • plastic trays
    • photo dryer
    • rustproof clips
    • scissors

Supplies Needed:

    • distilled water
    • plastic bags
    • sponges
    • Kodak Photo Flo solution

Drying Methods — Air Drying:

    • The best air drying method is to clip the fiche to clothesline with rustproof clips. Fiche should be removed from the paper jackets to dry.
    • Jackets should be retained to preserve any information printed on them, but this information should be transferred to new jackets once the fiche is dry and ready to be stored again.

Drying Methods — Freezing

    • Interleave with freezer paper between envelopes and pack in crates or boxes for freezing.

Top Of The Page

 

MICROFILM

Disaster Response Priority Actions:

    • Microfilm on reels should be delivered to a microfilm lab to be rewashed and dried within 48 hours.
    • Kodak will process their film at no charge.
    • Wet film must be kept wet until it can be rewashed.
    • The emulsion of film that has had mold damage is soluble in water.
    • Deteriorated acetate film has a low recovery rate. Freeze or air-dry immediately.

Handling Precautions:

    • Do not move items until a place has been prepared to receive them.
    • Wipe outside of film boxes before opening.
    • Do not remove wet microfilm from boxes; hold cartons together with rubber bands.
    • Dry film in damp or wet boxes should be removed and kept together with the box.

Packing Methods:

    • Wet film should be packed in container lined with plastic bags to keep it wet for re-washing.

Equipment and Tools needed:

    • plastic containers (garbage cans)
    • plastic trays

Supplies Needed

    • distilled water
    • plastic bags
    • rubber bands
    • sponges

Drying Methods:

    • Microfilm lab to rewash and dry microfilm.

Top Of The Page

 

MOTION PICTURE FILM

Disaster Recovery Priority Actions:

    • Water damage to materials may be irreversible. The treatment of items of high monetary, historic or sentimental value should be referred to a conservator.
    • Motion picture film on reels or cores should be delivered to a film processor to be rewashed and dried within 48 hours.
    • Wet film must be kept wet until it can be rewashed.
    • The emulsion of film that has had mold damage is soluble in water.
    • Deteriorated acetate film has a low recovery rate. Freeze or air-dry immediately.

Handling Precautions:

    • Do not move items until a place has been prepared to receive them.
    • Wipe outside of film cans boxes before opening.
    • Film cans that are wet on the outside may contain dry film that should be separated from wet material.

Packing Methods:

    • Wet film should be packed in container lined with plastic bags to keep it wet for re-washing.

Equipment and Tools needed:

    • plastic containers (garbage cans)
    • plastic trays

Supplies Needed:

    • distilled water
    • plastic bags
    • rubber bands
    • sponges

Drying Methods:

    • A professional processor should be contacted to rewash and dry motion picture film.

Top Of The Page

 

PAPER: WORKS OF ART ON PAPER

Disaster Recovery Priority Actions:

    • Water damage to materials may be irreversible. The treatment of items of high monetary, historic or sentimental value should be referred to a conservator.
    • Air-dry or freeze within 24 hours.
    • Items with friable or water soluble media (pastel or gouache, watercolors, inks, hand colored prints) should be frozen immediately to arrest the migration of moisture that will feather and blur inks.
    • Tempera, oil, acrylic should not be frozen.
    • Avoid freezing pastel and gouache if possible.
    • Coated paper (i.e. posters) should be air-dried or frozen within 6 hours. Coated paper must not be allowed to air dry in a clump or it will permanently block together.
    • Items that show signs of previous bacterial growth should also be frozen immediately if they cannot be air-dried immediately.

Handling Precautions:

    • Paper is very weak when wet and can easily tear if unsupported while handling. Large paper items need to be supported. Mylar or Reemay can be used to support items. Hold diagonal corners to carry.

Equipment and Tools Needed:

    • dehumidifier
    • extension cords
    • fans
    • fiberglass screening and 2 x 4s
    • plexiglass sheets
    • plywood sheets covered with polyethylene
    • scissors
    • sponges
    • trays

Supplies Needed:

    • blotter paper
    • freezer or waxed paper
    • mat board
    • newsprint (un-inked sheets or rolls)
    • mylar
    • Reemay (polyester spunbound fabric)
    • silicon release paper

Preparation For Drying:

    • Be sure to maintain location information. Pencil on slips of paper location information and keep this with the item.
    • Blot excess water off of prints and drawings with stable media. NEVER blot pastel, charcoal, chalk, graphite.
    • Drawings and prints in map drawers. Sponge standing water out of drawers. Remove the drawers from the cabinet, ship and freeze them stacked up with 1" x 2" strips of wood between each drawer
    • Do not attempt to separate individual items while very wet. Leave them in stacks no higher than 1" to dry.
    • Pack loose, flat maps in trays, flat boxes, or on plywood sheets covered with polyethylene.
    • Bundle rolled items loosely and place horizontally in boxes lined with a release layer, and send to the freezer.
    • Framed or matted items must be removed from frames and mats prior to air or freeze drying.
    • Air Drying - secure a clean, dry environment where the temperature and humidity are as low as possible. Cover tables, floors or other flat surfaces with sheets of blotter or newsprint.
    • Fiberglass screening stacked with bricks or 2x4s can be a useful way of increasing air circulation around an item for air-drying.
    • Freezing - Work space and work surfaces and the following equipment: milk crates and/or cardboard boxes, trays, sheets of plywood and rolls/sheets of freezer or waxed paper.

Drying Methods — Air Drying:

    • Air Drying - This technique is most suitable for small numbers of records which are damp or water-damaged around the edges.
    • Keep the air moving at all times using fans. Direct fans into the air and away from the drying records. Use dehumidifiers as needed to maintain 50% RH.
    • Water-soluble media - Allow it to dry face up. Do not attempt to blot the item. Change wet blotter or newsprint regularly.
    • Wet material - When separating saturated paper, use extra caution to support large sheets.
    • If items are in mylar sleeves the mylar must be removed to allow drying. Cut the two sealed edges of the film in the border between the item and the seal. Roll back the top piece of polyester in a diagonal direction.
    • If there are any apparent problems with the paper support or media, stop and seek the assistance of a Conservator.
    • Support can be given to single sheets by placing a piece of polyester film on the top of the document. Rub the film gently and then slowly lift the film while at the same time peeling off the top sheet in a diagonal direction. Lay the sheet flat; as it dries, it will separate from the surface of the film.
    • When items are almost dry, place them between dry newsprint or blotter paper and put a light weight on them to flatten. If the item is too wet when placed under weights, a micro-environment can be created for mold growth.

Drying Methods — Freezing:

    • Freezing - This option is best if there are large quantities or if the water damage is extensive.
    • Specify freeze drying for coated paper and items with water-soluble media; do not use vacuum thermal drying.
    • Items with friable or water soluble media (pastel or gouache, watercolors, inks, hand colored prints) should be frozen immediately to arrest the migration of moisture that will feather and blur inks.
    • Tempera, oil, acrylic should not be frozen.
    • Avoid freezing pastel and gouache if possible.

Top Of The Page

 

PAPER: DOCUMENTS AND MANUSCRIPTS

Disaster Recovery Priority Actions:

    • Water damage to materials may be irreversible. The treatment of items of high monetary, historic or sentimental value should be referred to a conservator.
    • Air-dry or freeze within 24 hours.
    • Saturated coated paper should be air-dried or frozen within 6 hours. Coated paper must not be allowed to air dry in a clump or it will permanently block together.
    • Records with water soluble inks should be frozen immediately to arrest the migration of moisture that will feather and blur inks.
    • Records that show signs of previous bacterial growth should also be frozen immediately if they cannot be air-dried.
    • Framed or matted items must be removed from frames and mats prior to air or freeze drying.
    • Do not freeze parchment or vellum.

Handling Precautions:

    • Paper is very weak when wet and can easily tear if unsupported while handling.
    • Coated paper: Physical manipulation should be kept to a minimum to avoid disruption of the water soluble coating and media which can result in loss of information.
    • Do not blot or wipe parchment.

Equipment and Tools Needed:

    • boxes: milk crates or Rescubes
    • dehumidifier
    • extension cords
    • fans
    • plexiglass sheets
    • plywood sheets covered with plastic sheeting
    • scissors
    • sponges
    • trays

Supplies Needed:

    • blotter paper
    • freezer or waxed paper
    • mat board
    • newsprint (UN-inked sheets or rolls)
    • polyester film
    • Reemay (polyester spunbound fabric)
    • silicon release paper

Preparation For Drying:

    • Be sure to maintain the original order of the files. Pencil on slips of paper the box and folder information and keep this with the records.
    • Blot excess water off of documents with stable media.
    • Do not attempt to separate individual items while very wet. Leave them in stacks no higher than 1" to dry.
    • Air-Drying - secure a clean, dry environment where the temperature and humidity are as low as possible. Cover tables, floors or other flat surfaces with sheets of blotter or newsprint.
    • Freezing - Work space and work surfaces and the following equipment: milk crates and/or cardboard boxes, trays, sheets of plywood and rolls/sheets of freezer or waxed paper.

Drying Methods — Air Drying:

    • Air-Drying - This technique is most suitable for small numbers of records which are damp or water-damaged around the edges.
    • Keep the air moving at all times using fans. Direct fans into the air and away from the drying records. Use dehumidifiers as needed to maintain 50% RH.
    • Damp and partially wet records — Spread documents out over paper towels, blotters or newsprint. Wet blotter or newsprint should be changed when they become wet.
    • Interleave stacks of 25 sheets of damp papers and turn over frequently.
    • Dry damp records can be air-dried vertically, supported by bookends or supporting them in plastic crates. Air circulation is the most important factor.
    • For wet stable media do not separate single sheets. Paper is fragile when wet. Begin by separating folders, and as pages are safe to separate, interleave and continuing air-drying.
    • Soluble media (felt pens, colored pens, ball point pens) - allow it to dry face up. Do not attempt to blot the item since blotting may result in offsetting water-soluble components.
    • Coated Paper requires that each and every page be interleaved with a nonstick material such as silicone release paper, reemay or wax paper.
    • Damp material - Single sheets or small groups of records are to be laid out on paper covered flat surfaces. If small clumps of records are fanned out to dry, they should be turned at regular intervals to encourage evaporation from both sides.
    • If items are in mylar sleeves the polyester must be removed to allow drying. Cut the two sealed edges of the film in the border between the item and the seal. Roll back the top piece of polyester in a diagonal direction.
    • Support can be given to single sheets by placing a piece of mylar on the top of the document. Rub the film gently and then slowly lift the film while at the same time peeling off the top sheet in a diagonal direction. Lay the sheet flat; as it dries, it will separate from the surface of the film.
    • When items are almost dry, place them between dry newsprint or blotter paper and put a light weight on them to flatten. If the item is too wet when placed under weights, a micro-environment can be created for mold growth.

Drying Methods — Freezing:

    • Freezing - This option is best if there are large quantities or if the water damage is extensive.
    • Specify freeze drying for coated paper and linen drawings; do not use vacuum thermal drying.
    • Place manuscript boxes in milk crates or cardboard boxes. If time permits, interleave each manuscript box with freezer or waxed paper. If the boxes have been discarded, interleave every two inches of foldered material with freezer or waxed paper.

Top Of The Page

 

PAPER: MAPS AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

Disaster Recovery Priority Actions:

    • Water damage to materials may be irreversible. The treatment of items of high monetary, historic or sentimental value should be referred to a conservator.
    • Air-dry or freeze within 24 hours.
    • Drafting linens are coated with starch and may stick together like coated paper. Do not blot the surface. Air-dry or freeze within 6 hours.
    • Maps and plans by photomechanical processes (including diazo and blueprints) - Do not blot the surface. Air-dry or freeze within 6 hours.
    • Items with water soluble inks should be frozen immediately to arrest the migration of moisture that will feather and blur inks.
    • Maps or plans that show signs of previous bacterial growth should also be frozen immediately if they cannot be air-dried.

Handling Precautions:

    • Paper is very weak when wet and can easily tear if unsupported while handling. Large paper items need to be supported. Mylar or Reemay can be used to support items. Hold diagonal corners to carry.
    • Drafting linen, and coated paper: Physical manipulation should be kept to a minimum to avoid disruption of the water soluble coating and media which can result in loss of information.

Equipment and Tools Needed:

    • dehumidifier
    • extension cords
    • fans
    • fiberglass screening and 2 x 4s
    • plexiglass sheets
    • plywood sheets covered with polyethylene
    • scissors
    • sponges
    • trays
    • wood dowels

Supplies Needed:

    • blotter paper
    • freezer or waxed paper
    • mat board
    • newsprint (UN-inked sheets or rolls)
    • mylar
    • Reemay (polyester spunbound fabric)
    • silicon release paper

Preparation For Drying:

    • Be sure to maintain location information. Pencil on slips of paper location information and keep this with the item.
    • Blot excess water off of maps and plans with stable media.
    • Do not attempt to separate individual items while very wet. Leave them in stacks no higher than _" to dry.
    • Maps, plans, oversize prints in map drawers. Sponge standing water out of drawers. Remove the drawers from the cabinet, ship and freeze them stacked up with 1" x 2" strips of wood between each drawer.
    • Pack loose, flat maps in trays, flat boxes, or on plywood sheets covered with polyethylene.
    • Bundle rolled items loosely and place horizontally in boxes lined with a release layer, and send to the freezer.
    • Framed or matted items must be removed from frames and mats prior to air or freeze drying.
    • To move large paper items create a sling out of plastic sheets around wood dowels. These can be carried by holding the dowels to go through narrow doorways or stairwells.
    • Air Drying - secure a clean, dry environment where the temperature and humidity are as low as possible. Cover tables, floors or other flat surfaces with sheets of blotter or newsprint.
    • Fiberglass screening attached to 2x4s can be a useful way of increasing air circulation around an item for air-drying.
    • Freezing - Work space and work surfaces and the following equipment: milk crates and/or cardboard boxes, trays, sheets of plywood and rolls/sheets of freezer or waxed paper.

Drying Methods — Air Drying:

    • Air Drying - This technique is most suitable for small numbers of records which are damp or water-damaged around the edges.
    • Keep the air moving at all times using fans. Direct fans into the air and away from the drying records. Use dehumidifiers as needed to maintain 50% RH.
    • Drafting linens, Photomechanical processes, and coated paper should be dried face up. Do not attempt to blot the item. Change wet blotter or newsprint regularly.
    • Water-soluble media, allow it to dry face up. Do not attempt to blot the item. Change wet blotter or newsprint regularly.
    • Wet material - When separating saturated paper, use extra caution to support large sheets.
    • If items are in mylar sleeves the mylar must be removed to allow drying. Cut the two sealed edges of the film in the border between the item and the seal. Roll back the top piece of polyester in a diagonal direction. If there are any apparent problems with the paper support or media, stop and seek the assistance of a Conservator.
    • Support can be given to single sheets by placing a piece of polyester film on the top of the document. Rub the film gently and then slowly lift the film while at the same time peeling off the top sheet in a diagonal direction. Lay the sheet flat; as it dries, it will separate from the surface of the film.
    • When items are almost dry, place them between dry newsprint or blotter paper and put a light weight on them to flatten. If the item is too wet when placed under weights, a micro-environment can be created for mold growth.

Drying Methods — Freezing:

    • Freezing - This option is best if there are large quantities or if the water damage is extensive.
    • Specify freeze drying for coated paper, drafting linens, and photomechanical processes; do not use vacuum thermal drying.

Top Of The Page

 

PHOTOGRAPHS & SLIDES
(This section coming soon!)

 

RECORDINGS: AUDIO TAPES

Disaster Recovery Priority Actions:

    • Water damage to materials may be irreversible. The treatment of items of high monetary, historic or sentimental value should be referred to a conservator.
    • Air-dry within 48 hours.
    • Do not freeze.
    • Do not touch magnetic media with bare hands.

Handling Precautions:

    • Do not move items until a place has been prepared to receive them.
    • Pack vertically into plastic crates or cardboard cartons.
    • Don't put heavy weight or pressure on the sides of the reels.

Equipment or Tools Needed:

    • dehumidifier
    • fans
    • plastic trays
    • scissors
    • sponges

Supplies Needed

    • blotter paper
    • cheese cloth
    • distilled water

Preparation For Drying:

    • Separate tapes into the following:
    • Dry tapes
    • Wet boxes only
    • Wet tapes
    • If water has condensed inside a cassette, treat as a wet tape
    • Salvage tapes according to the following priorities:
    • Unmastered originals over masters
    • Masters over reference copies
    • Older tapes over new
    • Acetate over polyester based tapes
    • Often contamination by water and other substances is mainly confined to the outermost layers of tape. Do not unwind tapes or remove from the reel. In these cases, wash the exposed edges with distilled water.
    • Keep tapes at their initial level of wetness. Some tapes may have only become wet on the outside of the tape pack… it is not necessary to immerse them.
    • Pack tapes individually inside plastic bags, keeping loose labels with tape. Pack tapes vertically into plastic crates and cartons.
    • Magnetic tapes can remain wet for several days as long as water is cool and clean. Older tapes may not survive long immersion. Water soluble labels will be effected.

Drying Methods — Air Drying:

    • Air dry by supporting the reels vertically or by laying the reels on sheets of clean blotter. Leave the tapes to dry next to their original boxes. Use fans to keep air moving without blowing directly on the items.
    • Use portable dehumidifiers to remove moisture from the area/objects. Bring relative humidity down to 50%.
    • Once dry, the tapes can be assessed for further cleaning and duplication. This procedure is done by specialized professional vendors.

Top Of The Page

 

RECORDINGS: VIDEO TAPES

Disaster Recovery Priority Actions:

    • Water damage to materials may be irreversible. The treatment of items of high monetary, historic or sentimental value should be referred to a conservator.
    • Air-dry within 48 hours.
    • Do not freeze.
    • Do not touch magnetic media with bare hands.

Handling Precautions:

    • Do not move items until a place has been prepared to receive them.
    • Pack vertically into plastic crates or cardboard cartons.
    • Don't put heavy weight or pressure on the sides of the reels.

Equipment or Tools Needed:

    • dehumidifier
    • fans
    • plastic trays
    • scissors
    • sponges

Supplies Needed

    • blotter paper
    • cheese cloth
    • distilled water

Preparation For Drying:

    • Often contamination by water and other substances is mainly confined to the outermost layers of tape. Do not unwind tapes or remove from the reel. In these cases, wash the exposed edges with distilled water.

Drying Methods — Air Drying:

    • Air dry by supporting the reels vertically or by laying the reels on sheets of clean blotter. Leave the tapes to dry next to their original boxes. Use fans to keep air moving without blowing directly on the items.
    • Use portable dehumidifiers to remove moisture from the area/objects. Bring relative humidity down to 50%.
    • Once dry, the tapes can be assessed for further cleaning and duplication. This procedure is done by specialized professional vendors.

Top Of The Page

 

RECORDINGS: RECORD ALBUMS (Vinyl, Shellac and Acetate Discs)

Disaster Recovery Priority Actions:

    • Water damage to materials may be irreversible. The treatment of items of high monetary, historic or sentimental value should be referred to a conservator.
    • Dry within 48 hours. Freezing is untested.
    • Separate shellac, acetate and vinyl discs.

Handling Precautions:

    • Do not move items until a place has been prepared to receive them.
    • Hold discs by their edges. Avoid shocks.

Equipment and Tools needed:

    • Plastic crates
    • Rack to dry discs

Supplies Needed

    • Bubble pack
    • distilled water
    • grease pencil
    • blotting paper
    • Kodak Photo Flo Solution

Drying Methods — Air Drying:

    • Remove the discs from their sleeves and jackets. If labels have separated, mark the center of the disc with a grease pencil and keep track of the label.
    • Separate shellac, acetate and vinyl discs. If dirt has been deposited on the discs, they may be washed in a 1% solution of Kodak Photo Flo in distilled water. Each disc media should be washed in its own container (ie. Do not wash shellac discs with vinyl discs). Rinse each disc thoroughly with distilled water.
    • Air dry discs vertically in a rack that allows for the free circulation of air. Dry slowly at ambient temperature away from direct heat and sources of dust.
    • Jackets, sleeves, and labels may be air dried like other paper materials. See PAPER

Top Of The Page

 

SCRAPBOOKS

Disaster Recovery Priority Actions:

    • Water damage to materials may be irreversible. The treatment of items of high monetary, historic or sentimental value should be referred to a conservator.
    • Freeze immediately.

Handling Precautions:

    • Large scrapbooks should be supported with boards or a tray.

Equipment and tools needed:

    • boxes: milk crates or Rescubes
    • scissors
    • sponges
    • trays (large plastic or enamel photo trays)

Supplies Needed:

    • bags — small sandwich size
    • blotter paper
    • freezer or wax paper
    • newsprint (UN-inked sheets or rolls)
    • paper towels
    • pens waterproof
    • reemay (polyester spunbond fabric)
    • silicon release paper
    • tyvek ties

Drying Methods — Air Drying:

    • Air-drying may be used for small quantities which are only damp or water-damaged around the edges. The scrapbooks should not have large amounts of coated paper or water soluble media.
    • Pages should be interleaved with newsprint or blotter and the books placed on tables. The interleaving and page opening should be changed regularly and often to speed the drying.
    • If the binding structure is no longer intact or the scrapbook can be dismantled, separate the leaves and air dry on clean blotters covered with reemay; periodically turn from recto to verso to promote even drying.
    • Keep the air moving at all times using fans. Direct fans into the air and away from

Drying Methods — Freezing:

    • Freeze drying is the preferred method. If the book is to be freeze dried, the photographs should first be removed. Wrapped scrapbooks should be packed laying flat in shallow boxes or trays lined with freezer paper.
    • Do not vacuum thermal dry scrapbooks with photos or water soluble media.
    • Interleave scrapbook with reemay or wax paper before freezing.
    • Wrap individual scrapbooks with freezer or wax paper.

Top Of The Page

 

State of Hawaii University of Hawaii Hamilton Library Sitemap Preservation Department Home Page