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Liliuokalani, 1893 to James H. Blount  excerpt from Blount Report

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Statement of Liliuokalani.

His Excellency James H. Blount:

Sir : On the morning of the 26th of November, 1890, I went to Iolani palace, where I met His Majesty Kalakaua's ministers, Mr. J. A. Cummins, C. N. Spencer, G. Brown, and A. P. Peterson, awaiting the appearance of His Majesty.

We did not have to wait long and were ushered into the library, the King seating me in his chair and formally introduced his ministers to me. After exchanging assurances of fidelity to each other and faithfulness in the discharge of their official duties, the ministers left, and the King and I were left to talk over matters.

He told me of things that had transpired a few months back. That some of the ministers had thrown guns and ammunition into the sea from the steamer Waimanalo. It was done to pro vent him from having them, and had evidently been directed by the reform party with whom a portion of his ministers were in accord, instead of keeping them for his protection and safety. These ministers were working with a party of conspirators, who are the very same parties who have been the means of the overthrow of my government on the 17th of January, 1893. They are called the missionary or reform party.

The King went on to say that his guards had been reduced to twenty men and they were barely sufficient to protect me if there should be any disturbance. He had requested Mr. Cummins, minister of foreign affairs, to send back to the palace all the guns that were at the station house and that the carriages had been sent to the palace but the guns themselves had been kept back. It was an insult by his cabinet and he felt keenly his weakness; that he had no more power or influence since his cabinet was working against him. He explained all these things because he-wanted me to study my situation so as to be able to cope with it.

The time for his departure on the U. S. S. Charleston drew near and he bade the Queen and myself farewell, and I felt in my own heart some misgivings that I would never see him again.

I spent a few nights in the palace and realized the insecurity of the situation. Every two or three nights there was an alarm of some kind. There was a fear that something- was going to happen; what that something was no one could tell. Mr. Cummins had heard of some conspiracy but could not prove anything. During the session of 1890 the Honolulu Rifles were disbanded, but the members of that company were still allowed to carry arms in the streets and to wear the uniforms.

I asked my husband, the Hon. John O. Dominis, how all this could be allowed. He referred me to the minister of foreign affairs. On inquiring of the minister he said that they were part of the Knights of Pythias and were permitted to carry arms. This was very unsatisfactory, and my husband and 1 concluded that there must be some underhanded dealings somewhere. After that I preferred to remain at Washington Place, only going to the palace during office hours.

A few weeks passed, and during that time grand preparations were made to receive the King on his return but the morning of the 29th, of January, 1891, the city was startled with the news that the U. S. S. Charleston was in sight with the Hawaiian flag flying at half mast.

I was so shocked by the news that it seemed as if I was in a maze, especially as those things which took place on that day was all done in a hurry by my ministers, of whom Mr. Godfrey Brown seemed to be leader. Things that might have been put off for a day or two were all done that day, and I had no time to think wisely of my situation, or to realize the sad grief that had fallen on Kalakaua's Queen and myself and on the whole nation.

On that day, at 11, I was told that I was to take the oath. I sent a note immediately to my husband (at Washington Place) who was lying on a sick bed, and told him of the arrival of my brother's remains, and of all that had transpired, and he came to the palace weak as he was.

We conversed on the subject before us; also about the constitution. I told him I did not wish to sign it, as there was a general feeling in the, community, and principally amongst the native Hawaiians, that it was not a good constitution, as it had been forced on the King and the Hawaiian people, but my husband persuaded me to sign it, and I obeyed.

At 2 o'clock p. m. we entered the room where all the privy councillors wore assembled and there, in their presence, 1 took the oath of office and swore to abide by the constitution of 1887. As we left the room and waited in the blue room, to receive congratulations as well as condolences, just before the members came in a piece of paper, hurriedly written, was thrust in my hand, on which was written, "Do not sign the constitution; 1 shall soon explain why." But the deed was done. Chief Justice Judd was the first who came forward, but instead of congratulations, said in an undertone, "Should your ministers come up, say to them that they may keep their portfolios." I suspected something wrong and kept my countenance.

After all the others had come and gone their turn came. Mr. Cummins, as head of the cabinet, said:

"Your Majesty, we wish to say that we are not quite sure that we can hold our commissions," Then Mr. Brown finished the sentence for him by saying that the constitution distinctly states that the cabinet could only be dismissed by the Legislature ; therefore, all that was required would be to have new commissions made out for them. It will be seen there is no clause in the constitution providing for the cabinet in case of the demise of a sovereign,

I asked them each to keep their portfolios until after the King's funeral and at that time I would discuss the matter. On the 15th of February, 1891, the funeral took place, and on Monday, the 10th, at 9 a.m., Mr. Cummins and I had a private conference. He evidently wanted to know what my decision would be. I told him I thought they ought to resign, and I would give him another position.

At 10 I met the following gentlemen in the cabinet council: Mr. J, A. Cummins, Mr. C. N. Spencer, Mr. G. Brown, Mr. A. P. Peterson. I told them I had studied over the situation, and concluded that they could not remain as my cabinet; that they ought to resign. They said they had also considered the question and concluded that I ought to give them new commissions, and asked me to give them more time to consider, and it was granted them. It took two weeks before it was finally settled.

At 12 m. of the same day an audience was granted to Admiral Brown, as he intended to sail soon. When the hour for the reception arrived, I was surprised when the American minister, J. L. Stevens, came also, as no notice had been previously given to my chamberlain that it was his intention to come. After the usual form of presentation was over Mr. Stevens took the opportunity to make an address, which I thought was not at all suited to the occasion. It was the first step that Mr. Stevens took to interfere, and I felt at the time that he would take some future occasion to make trouble.Two days after Admiral Brown remarked to me that I did not seem overpleased with Mr. Stevens's speech and that my eyes flashed fire.

Two weeks elapsed, when the cabinet consulted the supreme bench, and was told that they could not hold their seats or positions without I gave them new commissions, so they resigned.

The reading of the King's will took place, and Admiral Brown was invited by the Queen dowager to be present. I appointed my new cabinet. They were Mr. S. Parker, minister of foreign affairs; Mr. C. N. Spencer, minister of interior; Mr. H. A. Widemann. minister of finance; Mr. W. A. Whiting, attorney-general. I also appointed Mr. C. B. Wilson marshal. Before I appointed my ministers Messrs. Bush and Wilcox called and offered their services, but as Mr. Bush had shown his ingratitude to the late King, and Mr. Wilcox a disposition of disobedience on the occasion of his revolution of 1889, I felt I could not have such men for ministers, and appointed others, which made them very angry.

I began a tour to the different islands with my husband and quite a large retinue. It took us nearly six months to make a complete tour, now and then returning between times to Honolulu on business matters, and in the month of -July my husband was taken sick and on the 27th of August, 1891, he breathed his last. I felt his loss very much, as his experience of several years' service with Kamehameha IV. and V, and also under Lunalilo and Kalakaua's reign, proved valuable to me. He was a kind and affectionate husband, a man of honor, and esteemed by all who knew him. To those whom he gave in charity it was never spoken of. His death was a severe loss, for I needed him most at that time to advise with in the affairs of state.

Soon after the appointment of my ministers I asked my husband to come to the palace and stay. He did not wish to because he had to climb those long stairs; so I told him I would have the bungalow put in repair and furnished, and Mr. Robertson, my chamberlain, had instructions to that effect, and to see that it was done.

My husband made a request that when the ministers were ready to put up the iron fence around the palace grounds (for which the Legislature of 1890 had given appropriations) he would like to have a wicket gate made for his own convenience. I told him to speak to Minister Spencer, which he did, but the gate was not finished until 1892, and it had never been used by anyone except Mr. Robertson, my chamberlain, to let the young ladies and gentlemen of the Minuet Club pass through.

Here I will state that in 1889 that palace walls had just been completed at a great expense to the Government and after the Wilcox revolution, this very L. A. Thurston, the agitator, who was in the cabinet that year, saw fit without any regard to the heavy amount expended on the wall, ordered the whole wall to be torn down ; hence the appropriation of 1890 for an iron fence. The missionary ladies' party clapped their hands with glee as they stood outside the post office and said, "Thank the Lord the country is ours." Had their fathers left a dying request that they should eventually control and hold power over these islands? One would suppose so from the actions of their sons and daughters.

I return to the events which took place after my husband's death. I asked my cousins Princes Kawananakoa and Kalauiauole to come and stay at the bungalow, but they did not seem inclined to do so, so one day Mr. Wilson asked if he and Kitty, his wife, might not come and stay with me, as he thought that it was necessary I should have some one near me to protect me, as he was fearful that some evil-minded person might do me harm, as there were parties who did not hesitate to make hateful remarks about me in his presence. Perhaps I was the obstacle to the full accomplishment of their wishes-that is power.

Mr. Wilson is a man of great decision and firmness of character, and as he had been appointed marshal of the Kingdom, I thought it would not be out of the way if I did accept his offer. I regretted in one sense shortly after that, that, I had consented, because he was not the same person I had known as a boy. He was 19 years of age when he courted Evaline, a young girl who had almost grown up in our household, and my husband and I encouraged their marriage; but many years had flown by, and he had been through rough experience in his duties and exhibited now and then how well suited he was to the appointment of marshal. He had a brave heart and his wife I have a great fondness for.

The Legislature, Mr. Wilson said, was about to convene, and it was necessary for him at such a time to be near me, and I thought it best to let them remain till after the prorogation. The day arrived for the opening of the Legislature, and I felt that my troubles had commenced. With such a party of men as those who comprised the Reform party, and with such unscrupulous men as Thurston, W. O. Smith, Alex. Young, I. Marsden, W. C. Wilder, and Henry Baldwin, as leaders, I knew that my cabinet would find it a difficult matter to contend against such a party. Laws were made mostly for their special benefit, and others that would prove injurious to the Hawaiians and other nationalities. They brought in measures which only tended to prolong the session and to give them time for their scheme of annexation to ripen. In the meantime Thurston took a trip to the States to attend to his cyclorama, and at the same time try to make stipulations for annexing these islands.

In the month of August the Reform party began their policy of dismissing the ministry. They made promises to Mr. Cummins of the National Reform, and Bush, Wilcox, and Ashford, of the Liberal party, and P. P. Kanoa of seats in the cabinet if they joined their party, and they did so, besides taking Kamauoha, Iosepa, and another member with them, which made the Reform party very strong. On the 31st of August, for no good cause, the Parker ministry was voted out in accordance with a clause in the constitution of 1887, that any minister could be voted out by a majority of the members of the House for "want of confidence." It had been decided by myself and cabinet that our policy should be one of economy and retrenchment. This had been our course from the commencement of my reign, binding ourselves strictly to and guiding our course according to the laws and regulations of our Kingdom, The Parker ministry had no sooner gone out than twenty-five Hawaiian members of the House petitioned me to appoint Mr. Parker again. Next day Mr. Baldwin asked for audience and came with a request that I would receive the Hons. Kanoa and Kauhane and ask them to form a cabinet for me.

I received those gentlemen, but they brought with, them a petition with a list of names, principally of the reform party, that I would nominate from those names my cabinet. They called the [sic] a constitutional principle. I knew if I yielded to their request I would be yielding my own right under the constitution, which gave me the right to appoint and the house to dismiss.

Two weeks passed and I appointed Minister Parker, Gulick, Macfarlane, and Neumann. The policy of this ministry was retrenchment in all directions, and Mr. Macfarlane, as minister of finance, immediately set to work with that purpose in view, and laid many satisfactory plans for them to pursue. In order to carry out the rigid economies prepared by Mr. Macfarlane, I consented to a reduction of $10,000 in the appropriation for my privy purse and further reductions in "household expenses, state entertainments, and the military."

They had, however, been in office only a few days when the American, minister, J. L. Stevens, made a request through Minister Parker that he would like to call on me the next day, the Kith of October, and that he would bring my Secretary with him. The hour was set for 11 and a cabinet council was called to sit at 10. When the hour arrived, the cabinet rose to depart. I asked them to remain, but Mr. Macfarlane begged to be excused, as lie had once, while as noble in the house,, brought in a resolution against Mr. J. L. Stevens on account of a speech he made on. the 30th of May, reflecting on the administration in Hawaii. Mr. Gulick and himself were excused and Mr. Parker and Mr. Neumann remained. Mr. Parker went to the door and received Mr. Stevens and at the same time asked what was the purpose of his visit, that he might apprise me. Mr. Stevens said he would mention it to me in person. They entered, followed by Mr. H. W. Severance. He seated himself in a manner which no gentleman would in the presence of a lady, and drew from under his arm a document which he read, stating that my Government had grossly insulted him, the ambassador of the United States and minister plenipotentiary for that nation, and holding them responsible for an article which appeared in the Bulletin reflecting upon Ms indifference in sending relief to the captain and crew of a shipwrecked American vessel.

He then read a clause in international laws relating to a minister's position in foreign lands. While lie was reading he seemed to belaboring under great excitement and anger, and when he finished reading I rose and said my cabinet would give the matter their best consideration, whereupon Mr. Stevens and Mr. Severance took their leave. Was he seeking to make trouble? I remarked to Mr. Parker and Mr. Neumann that it appeared that way. Next day a lunch was given by the ladies of the Central Union Church; the occasion was to help pay for the new church on Beretania street. Mr. Henry Severance took the occasion to say to me that he was entirely ignorant as to the intention of Minister Stevens before they arrived at the palace, as he had not told him of the object of the visit and was surprised at Mr. Stevens's conduct. I did not answer. Some correspondence passed between Mr. Stevens and my ministers, which resulted in the cabinet entering a suit for libel against the Bulletin, which was afterwards withdrawn by Mr. Stevens.

It was during this month that a meeting was held at the residence of Mr. Alexander Young, and a discussion arose as to my obstinacy in not appointing one of their number. They called this "constitutional principle." At this meeting it was proposed to dethrone me. The question was asked how it was to be accomplished, when it was stated that Capt. Wiltse of the Boston would assist.

Changes of ministry followed rapidly. The Cornwell cabinet lasted only one hour. Its members were W. H. Cornwell, J. Kawahi, C. T. Gulick, and C. Creighton. Without giving this cabinet any trial they were immediately voted out.

Here I must mention that when the Mafarlane ministry was voted out I wished to send them back to the house again, but Mr. Macfarlane and Mr. Neumann advised to the contrary. I felt loath to give up a cabinet composed of men in whom I had reason to know the community had confidence that their transactions would be straightforward and honest.

The Wilcox (Reform) cabinet came next. They were appointed by stratagem, as I found out afterwards. The policy of this cabinet was retrenchment, no changes in the monetary system of the country, and to make a commercial treaty which would bring us in closer relationship with the United States.

Their first policy they failed to carry out, as they went into all sorts of extravagant measures, such as $5,000 for sending a commission to Washington and that commission were to consist of Thurston, Wilcox, and others with the purpose of annexing these islands; $12,000 to send the band to Chicago, and $50,000 for the Volcano road. All these measures were for Mr. Thurston's private benefit, but were passed in the house. It had always been customary for the ministry to consult the King or sovereign in cabinet council on any measure of importance, but in this instance and on all occasions the cabinet had already decided on those measures, and simply presented them to me for my signature. I had no resource but to acquiesce.

Whenever I expostulated their answer was generally "We have consulted the chief justice, and are of one opinion." I found that I was simply a nonentity, a figurehead, but was content to wait patiently until the next session, when probably they would be voted out.

It required diplomacy to overthrow the Wilcox cabinet and the Liberals used it. The cabinet felt secure because those who worked amongst the members as wire-pullers were so sanguine about their success, but where corruption is practiced there is no stability, and such it proved in this instance.

A short time before the overthrow of the Wilcox cabinet Cummins, Bush, R. W. Wilcox, Ashford, and their followers, finding that their hopes of being in the cabinet would never be realized, left and turned to help the Liberals once more, and with the aid of some of the Nationals they were successful. They did not like the actions of the cabinet when it became known that the ministry had no consideration for the Queen and were carrying things in such a high-handed way.

These members had been deceived by the Thurston party, and they now combined to help the Liberals. Mr. White was the introducer of the bill providing for a constitutional convention ; also the opium and lottery bills. He watched his opportunity and railroaded the last two bills through the house, but he failed in regard to the first bill. A vote of want of confidence was then brought in. Three days before members flocked in at Washington Place and wanted to know if I wanted to get rid of my ministers. I said "No, it is not my privilege," they departed and others came and went.

Mr. Colburn and Ashford called and said they understood it was my wish. 1 answered them as I did the others. Mr. Ashford said "I see, Mr. Colburn, we have made a mistake, but Your Majesty, should it be your desire to be rid of your cabinet, we can be of great service in bringing it about, but we would expect to have a representation in the new cabinet." I asked who of their number they would put forward, and Mr. Ashford replied "Mr. Cummins, Bush, and myself." I made no further reply, and they left.

It was a practice among some of the native members to sell their votes for a consideration. This was taught them by the Thurston party. They would come to me and then return to that party and. repeat all that was said, for which they were usually paid something. The Liberals won and the cabinet was voted out, partly because they were so sure of their success and on account of their own corrupt practices.

Mr. Geo. N. Wilcox and Mr. Robinson I have a high consideration for. Mr. P. C. Jones is a hearty sympathizer with his party, while I think Mr. Cecil Brown capable of doing anything that the Reform party directed him to do. Mr. Merger's vote was the casting vote. It was decided between Mr. Parker and myself that Mr. Widemann was to be a member of the next cabinet and for that reason Mr. Berger voted against the Wilcox cabinet. And so it was, for Mr. Widemann gave his consent and afterwards he withdrew. The next day Mr. Parker, Cornwell, Colburn and Peterson were appointed. These gentlemen were accepted by the majority of the people in the house, who applauded them on their entrance, because they were men of liberal views, although they were not considered representative men, because they were not backed by moneyed men.

The same day of their appointment they advised me to sign the opium and lottery bills. I declined at first, as I wanted to please my lady friends, but they said there should be no hesitation on my part, as the house had passed those bills by a large majority, and they had beer, signed by the President and committee. I had no option but to sign. It took place on the 13th of January, 1893.

During the month of November, 1892, a private note was sent me informing me of the intentions of the American minister, J. L. Stevens, with the aid of some of our residents, to perfect a scheme of annexation, and that the cabinet had knowledge of the fact, but I gave little heed to it at the time.

On the 17th of December, 1892, another note was received, of which, the following is a copy:

Her Majesty Queen Liliuokalani, may it please your Majesty:
Madam: Referring to the confidential communication I took the liberty of addressing your Majesty a few weeks ago, about the attitude and utterances of the American representatives here, the perfect correctness of which have been confirmed by subsequent information, I now beg to be allowed to state, that through the same trustworthy source I have been informed that in a very late moment of effusion, some American official gave to understand that be had instructions to press and hurry up an annexation scheme, which he confidently expected to carry through at no distant date, with the help and assistance of the present cabinet.

If your Majesty will kindly weigh this information by the side of the bold open declarations and annexation campaign made at the present time in the Bulletin, by the Rev. Sereno Bishop, the well-known mouthpiece of the annexation party, I think that your Majesty will be able to draw conclusions for yourself, and realize not only that there is yet danger ahead, but that the enemy is in the household, and that the strictest watch ought to be kept on the members of the present cabinet. This again in strictest confidence from
Your Majesty's humble and faithful servant.

The above was written by a gentleman in whose word I have great confidence as a man who had the best interest of Hawaii at heart.

It was on the receipt of this note that I sent for the British commissioner, James H. Wodehouse, and asked his advice on the matter. I asked whether he thought it would be wise for me to invite all the foreign representatives of the diplomatic and consular corps fearing that a disturbance might arise over the political situation. He said he should not interfere with our local matters, and he dissuaded me from the idea, as he said it was like acknowledging that there was actual danger. "Bid I think there was any danger!" I answered, "there might be." The morning of the 14th of January, 1893, arrived with all preparations for the closing of the Legislature. At 10 a. in. I called a cabinet meeting for the purpose of apprising them of their positions in the house and other preliminary instructions, I told them it was my intention to promulgate a new constitution. The cabinet had to meet the Legislature and we adjourned. At 12 pm I prorogued the Legislature. I noticed that the hall was not filled as at the opening. There were not many ladies present in the audience, and I also noticed that several members of the Legislature belonging to the Reform party were not there. This looked ominous of some coming trouble.

On entering the palace I saw Mr. Wilson at the entrance of the blue room. I went up to him and asked if all was ready. He replied, "Yes." Then I said, "You will have to be brave to day," and I passed into the blue room and sat awaiting my ministers. A half hour passed and they did not come. After a little longer delay they arrived. I immediately judged from their countenances that something was wrong. I had a few days before planned that 1 would sign the constitution in the throne room and in the presence of the members of the Legislature, the majority of whom had been elected by the people for the purpose of working for a new constitution.

At the commencement of my reign petitions were sent from all parts of the kingdom asking for a new constitution. Mr. Iosepa, of Hana; Kauhi, of Ewa; Nahinu, of Molokai; Kanealii, of Waihee; Kamauoha, of Kohala, and other members came to me repeatedly and asked for a new constitution. Mr. Parker, from the commencement of his ministry, advocated a new constitution, as well as most of my friends, but I was cautious in my answers to them; but to Mr. Parker I had always said it would be a good thing, and he said he would sustain me when the proper opportunity arrived.

A month later I met two members of the Legislature, and started in to make up a new constitution from. Kamehameha V and that of 1887. After completing it, I kept it till the month of October, when I placed in the hands of Mr. A. P. Peter son, and asked him to correct it, and if he found any defects to strike them out and to put in such clauses as he thought would be good for the people and for the country. He took it and kept it a whole month. To my Knowledge he consulted many lawyers and others in regard to many points of interest in the document. When it was returned I looked it over and found no changes had been made, so 1 concluded that it was all right.

A week before the closing of the Legislature I asked Mr. Peterson to make a preamble for my new constitution, but up to the day of prorogation he had not made one. Early in January I mentioned to Capt. Nowlein, of the household guards, and Mr. Wilson, the marshal, my intention to promulgate a new constitution, and to prepare themselves to quell any riot or out break from the opposition. They assured me they would be ready, and I gave strict injunctions of secrecy and showed Mr. Wilson a plan of the throne room on the day of the signing.

Mr. Parker and Mr. Cornwell had given me assurances of their support before their appointment as ministers, while Mr. Peterson understood that such was my intention, and although I had not mentioned it to Mr. Colburn, he had heard of it already from Mr. Peterson.

It appears that immediately on their learning of my intentions Mr. Colburn, on the morning of the 14th of January, immediately acted the part of a traitor by going to Mr. Hartwell, a lawyer, and informed him of my intentions, and of course received instructions from him to strongly advise me to abandon the idea. This, then, was the cause of the delay and my long waiting in the blue room. The members of the diplomatic corps had been invited; also the members of the supreme bench and members of the Legislature, besides a committee of the Hui Kalaiaina. The latter were invited to be present because it was through them that many petitions had been sent to me. When the ministers arrived I told them everything in the throne room was ready and the guests were awaiting our presence; that we must not keep them waiting. I was surprised when the cabinet informed me that they did not think it advisable for me to take such a step, that there was danger of an uprising, etc. I told them that I would not have undertaken such a step if they had not encouraged me. They had led me out to the edge of a precipice and now were leaving me to take the leap alone. It was humiliating. I said, "Why not give the people the constitution and I will bear the brunt of all the blame afterwards." Mr. Peterson said, "We have not read the constitution." 1 told him he had had it in his possession a whole month.

The three ministers left Mr. Parker to try to dissuade me from my purpose, and in the meantime they all (Peterson, Cornwell, and Colburn) went to the Government building to inform Thurston and his party of the stand I took. Of course they were instructed not to yield. When they went over everything was peaceful and quiet, and the guests waiting patiently in the throne room.

The ministers returned and I asked them to read the constitution over. At the end I asked them what they saw injurious in the document. Mr. Peterson said there were some points which he thought were not exactly suited. I told him the Legislature could make the amendments, he begged that I should wait for two weeks; in the meantime they would be ready to present it to me. With these assurances I yielded, and we adjourned to the throne room. I stated to the guests present my reasons for inviting their presence. It was to promulgate a new constitution at the request of my people; that the ' constitution of 1887 was imperfect and full of defects. Turning to the chief justice I asked, " Is it not so, Mr. Judd?" and he answered in the affirmative, in the presence of all the members assembled.

I then informed the people assembled that under the advice of my ministers, I had yielded, as they had promised that, on some future day I could give them a new constitution. I then asked them to return to their homes and keep the peace.

I noticed the look of disappointment in their faces when I retired. During; all that transpired in the blue room from, 1 o'clock p. m. to 4 p. m., I was not at all agitated; was as calm as could be expected under the circumstances. When I reached the landing of the upper hall I heard a commotion below in the yard, so I hurried to the front veranda, accompanied by Prince Kawananakoa and Kalauiauole, and from there I addressed the people, saying that their wishes for a new constitution could not be granted just then, but will be some future day. They must go home and keep the peace and to pray for me, which they have done ever since.

There was a dinner prepared, at which forty persons sat down; everything was orderly and without confusion in the palace, and everything remained so all night. At 11 a.m. Sunday, the 15th, Mr. Parker came in to say that there was a meeting taking place in the Government building by the Reform party, but he did not say of what nature. All Sunday everything seemed quiet until Monday morning. Even if any great commotion had been going on I would have remained indifferent; the reaction was a great strain, and all that took place after that I accepted as a matter of course. It was the disappointment in my ministry.

At about 10 a. m. Monday, the 16th of January, notice was issued by my ministers, stating "that the position I took and the attempt I made to promulgate a new constitution was at the earnest solicitation of my people of my native subjects." They gave assurances that any changes desired in the fundamental law of the land would be sought only by methods provided in the constitution itself and signed by myself and ministers. It was intended to reassure the people that they might continue to maintain order and peace.

At about 5 p.m., however, the troops from the U. S. S. Boston were landed, by the order of the United States minister, J. L. Stevens, in * secret understanding with the revolutionary party, whose names are L. A. Thurston, Henry Waterhouse, W. B. Castle, W. O. Smith, A. F. Judd, P. C. Jones, W. C. Wilder, S. B. Dole, Cecil Brown, S. M. Damon, C. Bolte, John Emmeluth, J. H. Soper, C. L. Carter. Why had they landed when everything was at peace?

I was told that it was for the safety of American citizens and the protection of their interests. Then why had they not gone to the residences instead of drawing in line in front of the palace gates, with guns pointed at us, and when I was living with my people in the palace?

I was sitting alone in the blue room when Mr. Widemann and Dr. Trousseau came in hurriedly to inform me of the approach of the troops. I asked them to go out and tell the people to be quiet, which they did. There was no intention on the part of the Hawaii an s to harm them or to raise any disturbance of any kind, nor was the life of any American citizen in danger. These revolutionists, having their wicked plans and objects in view, and feeling sure of the support from the American minister, had worked their feelings to such a state of excitement that they called a meeting of the citizens and met at the armory at Punch Bowl street on Monday at 2 o'clock p. m. There may have been 1,200, present, but the majority of those present simply went to see and hear what the revolutionists had to say, and had no sympathy with them or their ideas. At the meeting they made incendiary remarks and appointed what they called a committee of safety. The Hawaiians -called a mass meeting and passed resolutions supporting the actions, of the Queen. It was a movement intended to reassure the people and to ward off the danger which they saw was approaching. The troops remained in front of the palace until dark, when they withdrew to the Arion Hall.

That evening the Royal Hawaiian Band played as usual at the Hawaiian Hotel, and a largo crowd of people met and everything around was quiet and peaceful. Tuesday morning at 9 o'clock Mr. S. M. Damon called at the palace. He told me that he had been asked to join a revolutionary council, but that lie had declined. He asked me what he should do and whether he should join the advisory or executive councils, suggesting that perhaps he could be of service to me; so I told him to join the advisory council. I had no idea that they intended to establish a new Government.

At about 2:30 p. m. the establishment of the Provisional Government was proclaimed, and nearly fifteen minutes later Mr. J. S. Walker came and told me "that he had come on a painful duty, that the opposition party had requested that I should abdicate." I told him that I had no idea of doing so, but that I would like to see Mr. Neumann. Half art hour later he returned with the gentleman, and I explained to him my position, and he advised that I should consult my friends. I immediately sent for Mr. J. O. Carter, Damon, Widemann, Cleghorn, my ministers, also Mr. Neumann, Walker, and Macfarlane being present. The situation being taken into consideration and found, that since the troops of the United States had been landed to support the revolutionists, by the order of the American minister, it would be impossible for us to make any resistance. Mr. Damon had previously intimated to Mr. Parker that it was useless to resist, their party was supported by the American minister. Mr. Damon also said at the meeting that it was to be understood that I should remain at the palace and continue to fly the royal standard. At 6 p. m. I signed the following protest:

I, Liliuokalani, by the grace of God and under the constitution of the Hawaiian . Kingdom, Queen, do hereby solemnly protest against any and all acts done against myself and the constitutional Government of the Hawaiian Kingdom by certain, persons claiming to have established a Provisional Government of and for this Kingdom. That I yield to the superior force of the United States of America, whose minister plenipotentiary, His Excellency John L. Stevens, has caused United States troops to be landed at Honolulu and declared that he would support the said Provisional Government.

Now, to avoid any collision of armed forces, and perhaps the loss of life, I do, under this protest and impelled by said forces, yield my authority until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon the facts being presented to it, undo (?) the action of its representative and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the constitutional sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands.

Done at Honolulu, this 17th day of January, A. D. 1893.

(Signed) Liliuokalani R.

(Signed) Samuel Parker, Minister of Foreign Affairs.

(Signed) Wm. H. Cornwell, Minister of finance.

(Signed) John F. Colburn, Minister of Interior.

(Signed) A. P. Peterson, Attorney-General.

(Addressed) To S. B. Dole, Esq., and others composing the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands.

A letter was sent to the marshal of the Kingdom requesting Mm to deliver everything to the Provisional Government.

All that night and next day everything remained quiet. At 10 a. m. the 18th, I moved to Washington Place of my own accord, preferring to live in retirement. On the 19th of January, I wrote a letter to President Harrison, making an appeal that justice should be done.

His Excellency Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States:

My great and good friend: It is with deep regret that I address yon on this occasion. Some of my subjects, aided by aliens, have renounced their loyalty and revolted against the constitutional Government of my Kingdom. They have attempted to depose me and to establish a Provisional Government in direct conflict with the organic, law of this Kingdom. Upon receiving incontestable proofs that his excellency the minister plenipotentiary of the United States aided and abetted their unlawful movement and caused United States troops to be lauded for that purpose, I submitted to force, believing that he would not have acted in that manner unless by authority of the Government which he represents.

This action on my part was prompted by three reasons, the futility of a conflict with the United States, the desire to avoid violence and bloodshed and the destruction of life and property, and the certainty which I feel that you and your Government will right whatever wrongs may have been inflicted upon us in the premises. In due time a statement of the true facts relating to this matter will be laid before yon, and I live in the hope that you will judge uprightly and justly between myself ' and my enemies.

This appeal is not made for myself personally but for my people who have hitherto always enjoyed the friendship and protection of the United States.

My opponents have taken the only vessel which could be obtained here for the purpose, and hearing of their intention to send a delegation of their number to present their side of this conflict before you I requested the favor of sending by the same vessel an envoy to you to lay before you my statement as the facts appear to myself and my loyal subjects.

This request has been refused and I now ask you that in justice to myself and to ' my people that no steps be taken by the Government of the United States until my cause can be heard by yon. I shall be able to dispatch an envoy about the 2d day of February, as that will be the first available opportunity hence, and he will reach you with every possible haste that there may be no delay in the settlement of this matter.

I pray you, therefore, my good friend that you will not allow any conclusions to be reached by you until my envoy arrives. I beg to assure you of the continuance of my highest consideration.

(Signed) Liliuokalani R.

It appears that President Harrison could not have taken notice of my appeal, or perhaps he was as anxious as the Provisional Government to annex these Islands, for the 16th of February I find he sent a message to the Senate transmitting the treaty, with a view to its ratification, without having first investigated or inquired into all the conditions or points of our situation, or that of the United States itself. I will not attempt to write the President's message, as you are already aware of its text.

I also wrote a letter to Mr. Cleveland, dated the 31st of January, 1893.

His Excellency Grover Cleveland, President-elect of the United States:

My great and good friend: In the vicissitudes which happened in the Hawaiian Islands, and which affect my people, myself, and my house so seriously, I feel comforted the more that, besides the friendly relation of the United States, I have the boon of your personal friendship and good will.

The changes which occurred here need not be stated in this letter; you will have at the time at which it reaches you the official information, but I have instructed the Hon. Paul Neumann, whom I have appointed my representative at Washington, to submit to you a precis of the facts and circumstances relating to the revolution in Honolulu, and to supplement it by such statements which you may please to elicit.

I beg that you will consider this matter, in which there is so much involved for my people, and that you give us your friendly assistance in granting redress for a wrong -which we claim has been done to us under color of the assistance of the naval forces of the United States in a friendly port. Believe me that 1 do not veil under this a request to you the fulfillment of which could in the slightest degree be contrary to your position, and I leave our grievance in your hands, confident that in so far as you deem it proper we shall have your sympathy and yarrow. I am, your good friend,


On the 31st of January the Hon. Paul Neumann received his appointment as envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the United States of America. On the 1st of February he departed for Washington, with Prince David Kawananakoa to accompany him on his commission, to negotiate for a withdrawal of the treaty and to restore to us what had been taken away by the actions of the revolutionists. At my request Mr. E. C. Macfarlane kindly consented to accompany the commission.

Happily, Providence ordered otherwise than as was expected by the revolutionists. Man proposes and God disposes. My commissioners arrived in time to stay the progress of the treaty. The members of the Senate became doubtful as to the correctness of the actions of the commissioners of the Provisional Government. President Harrison's term expired, and President Cleveland's inauguration took place, and I hailed it us a good omen, having met him in 1887 while he occupied the Presidential chair that year, and I have not been disappointed. President Cleveland's first act has been to withdraw that annexation treaty; the second, to send a Commissioner to investigate the situation in Hawaii Nei.

Your arrival in this country has brought relief to our people and your presence safety. There is no doubt but that the Provisional Government would have carried out extreme measures toward myself and my people, as you may have already seen ere this, by their unjust actions. If the President had been indifferent to my petitions I am certain it would have brought serious results to myself and tyranny to my subjects. In this I recognize the high sense of justice and honor in the person who is ruler of the American nation.

In making out this lengthy statement I will present the main points:

(1) That it has been a project of many years on the part of the missionary element that their children might some day be rulers over these islands and have the control and power in their own hands, as was the case after the revolution of 1887. Mr. W. W. Hall openly stated that they had planned for this for twelve years. It was a long-thought-of project, a dream of many years. So also said Mr. F. S. Lyman, of Hilo, in his speech to the people in. the mouth of January, He said, "Fifteen long years we have prayed for this, and now our prayers are heard." The disposition of those appointed to positions of authority, to act with the missionary element, tends to make the Government unstable, and because they found I could not easily be led by them, they do not like me.

(2) The interference of the American minister, J. L. Stevens, in our local affairs and conspiring with a few foreign people to overthrow me and annex these islands to the United States, and by his actions has placed me and my people in this unhappy position.

(3) My attempt to promulgate a new constitution. It was in answer to the prayers and petitions of my people. They had sent petitions to the late King, and to the Legislature ever since 1887.

The Legislature is the proper course by which a new constitution or any amendments to the constitution could lie made; that is the law. But when members are bribed and the Legislature corrupted how can one depend on any good measure being carried by the house? It is simply impossible. That method was tried and failed. There was only one recourse, and that was, that with the signature of one of the cabinet I could make a new constitution.

There is no clause in the constitution of 1887, to which I took my oath to maintain, stating "that there should be no other constitution but this," and article 78 reads that--

Wheresoever by this constitution any act is to be done or performed by the King or Sovereign it shall, unless otherwise expressed, mean that such act shall be done and performed by the Sovereign by and with the advice and consent of the cabinet.

The last clause of the forty-first article of the constitution reads:

No acts of the King shall have any effect unless it be countersigned by a member of the cabinet, who by that signature makes himself responsible.

My cabinet encouraged me, then afterwards advised me to the contrary. In yielding to their protest I claim I have not committed any unconstitutional or revolutionary act, and having withdrawn, why should the Reform party have gone on making preparations for war, as they did?

(4 and lastly.) That on the afternoon of the Kith of January, at 5 p. m., the United States troops were landed to support the conspirators, by orders of the United States minister, J. L. Stevens;

That on Tuesday, the 17th of January, 1893, at about 2:30 o'clock p. m. the Provisional Government was proclaimed, and Minister Stevens assured my cabinet that he recognized them, that Government; that at 6 p. m. of the same day I yielded my authority to the superior force of the United States.

We have been waiting patiently, and will still wait, until such time as the Government of the United States, on the facts presented to it, shall undo the act of its representative.

I hope and pray that the United States and her President will see -that justice is done to my people and to myself; that they will not recognize the treaty of annexation, and that it may forever be laid aside; that they will restore to me and to my nation all the rights that have been taken away by the action of her minister; that we may be permitted to continue to maintain our independent stand amongst the civilized nations of the world as in years gone by; that your great nation will continue those kind and friendly relations that have always existed for many years past between the two countries. I can assure that Hawaii and her people have no other sentiment toward America and her President than one of kindest regard.

The Provisional Government, instead of being under the guidance of the President and cabinet, as the responsible heads of the nation; are virtually led by irresponsible people, who compose the advisory councils and "provisional army," and who set the laws of the land at defiance. A continuance of this state of things 1 consider dangerous to life and to the community.

I pray, therefore, that this unsatisfactory state of things may not continue and that we may not suffer further waste, .justice may be speedily granted and that peace and quiet may once more reign over our land, Hawaii Nei.


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